May 25


Understanding the Distinct Flavor Profiles of Arabica Cultivars

By Hanson Cheng

May 25, 2023

Arabica cultivars are a particular type of coffee bean that originate from the Coffea arabica plant. The flavor profile of these cultivars is a topic of great interest for the coffee industry, as it can affect the taste, aroma, and overall quality of the coffee produced. Arabica cultivars are known for their complex flavor profile, which includes notes of fruit, chocolate, and floral flavors. In this article, we’ll explore the various factors that contribute to the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars, and why these factors are important for coffee lovers to consider when choosing their next cup of coffee.

Overview Of Flavor Profile Of Arabica Cultivars

The flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is a complex and fascinating subject that has garnered much attention from coffee roasters and consumers alike. Arabica coffee is renowned for its unique flavor characteristics that range from fruity and floral to nutty and chocolatey. The distinct taste of Arabica coffee is influenced by a variety of factors, such as the altitude, soil composition, and climate of the region where it was grown, as well as the specific cultivar of the coffee plant. Arabica coffee is divided into numerous cultivars, each with its own unique flavor profile and aroma.

Some of the most popular Arabica cultivars include Bourbon, Typica, Caturra, and Geisha, each of which has its own distinct characteristics. To truly appreciate the flavor profile of Arabica coffee, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to its flavor and aroma. Arabica coffee is grown predominantly at high altitudes, which creates cooler temperatures and a slower growing cycle for the coffee plants.

This, in turn, results in a more complex and nuanced flavor profile for the beans. Additionally, the specific soil and climatic conditions of a region can also have a significant impact on the taste and aroma of the coffee. The flavor profile of Arabica coffee is influenced not only by where it is grown but also by the specific cultivar of the coffee plant. Each Arabica cultivar has its own unique flavor profile and aroma, which can range from sweet and fruity to earthy and nutty.

Bourbon, for example, is known for its mild and balanced flavor profile that features notes of chocolate and caramel. Typica, on the other hand, has a more complex and nuanced flavor profile, featuring notes of citrus, berries, and floral accents. Caturra is another popular Arabica cultivar that is known for its bright acidity and sweet, fruity flavor, while Geisha is prized for its delicate floral and tea-like qualities.

Understanding the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is a critical aspect of coffee roasting and brewing. By selecting the right cultivar and adjusting the roasting process accordingly, coffee roasters can unlock the full potential of Arabica coffee’s complex and unique flavor profile. Moreover, by understanding the specific qualities of different Arabica cultivars, coffee consumers can make more informed decisions when selecting their coffee beans, enabling them to taste a wide range of subtle flavor notes and nuances.

Objective of the study

The flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is a complex and fascinating subject that has captivated the attention of coffee enthusiasts and scientists alike. The primary objective of this article is to explore the broad range of flavors that can be found in different Arabica cultivars and the factors that contribute to these unique taste profiles.

At the heart of this topic lies the concept of terroir, which refers to the specific environmental conditions, such as soil type, altitude, and climate, that influence the taste of coffee beans. Arabica coffee is typically grown in high-altitude regions that provide the ideal combination of warm days, cool nights, and ample rainfall to produce high-quality beans with complex flavors and aromas.

Another critical factor that contributes to the flavor of Arabica cultivars is the way in which the beans are processed after they are harvested. There are two primary processing methods used for coffee beans: the dry method and the wet method. The dry method involves drying the cherries in the sun, while the wet method entails removing the fruit pulp before drying the beans. Each method produces beans with distinct flavor profiles, and the choice of processing method can greatly impact the overall taste of the final brew.

The varietal of the Arabica cultivar is also an essential consideration when it comes to flavor. There are numerous Arabica cultivars, each with its unique taste characteristics. Some of the most popular varietals include Bourbon, Typica, and Caturra, each with a distinct balance of sweetness, acidity, and bitterness. In addition to varietal, the roast level and brew method also play a significant role in bringing out the unique flavors present in different Arabica cultivars.

Overall, the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is a rich and varied subject that offers much to explore and discover. By examining the numerous factors that contribute to the taste of these beans, we can gain a better understanding of how our favorite coffee flavors are created and appreciate the artistry and skill that goes into their cultivation and preparation.

Scope of the article

This article will focus on the flavor characteristics of different Arabica cultivars and how they differ from one another. To properly understand the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars, it is essential to explore the variation in taste experienced across different regions. Arabica coffee is grown in various regions, and each region has its unique climate and soil composition, which affects the flavour of the coffee beans. The variation in taste and aroma of Arabica coffee is due to the presence of over 850 volatile compounds.

These compounds are responsible for the unique flavour experience observed when brewing coffee. In addition, Arabica beans undergo a series of complex processing methods before roasting, which further contributes to the flavour profile of Arabica coffee. Therefore, exploring the complex relationship between the coffee plant genetics, processing methods and geographical location of Arabica beans, in terms of flavour profile, is critical for understanding the distinctiveness of Arabica cultivars.

Different Arabica Cultivars


Typica is one of the oldest Arabica coffee cultivars, originally from Ethiopia and then spread to other countries. This cultivar is characterized by its medium-sized beans and moderate yields. Typica plants usually grow tall and have a conical shape. They require high altitudes, mild temperatures, and abundant rainfall to thrive.

Typica is known for its delicate and nuanced flavors, with floral, citrusy, and fruity notes. The acidity of Typica coffee is usually bright and clean, with a good balance between sweetness and bitterness. The body of Typica coffee is moderate, not too light nor too heavy, with a silky mouthfeel. The aroma of Typica coffee is complex and inviting, with hints of jasmine, bergamot, and apricot.

Typica coffee is highly sought after by specialty coffee roasters and consumers who appreciate the classic taste of Arabica coffee. In recent years, Typica plants have been genetically analyzed to identify different sub-varieties with distinct taste profiles, such as Ethiopian Typica, Java Typica, and Sumatra Typica. Overall, Typica is a timeless Arabica cultivar that embodies the essence of specialty coffee.


Bourbon is a type of Arabica coffee cultivar that is known for its complex and vibrant flavors. It originated in the Bourbon Islands, which are now known as the Seychelles, and is named after the French royal house of Bourbon. Bourbon is one of the oldest Arabica cultivars in existence and is highly regarded among coffee enthusiasts for its taste profile, which is characterized by sweet and fruity notes, a mild acidity, and a smooth, creamy mouthfeel.

The flavor of Bourbon coffee is often described as having notes of caramel, chocolate, and citrus, as well as hints of spice and floral undertones. Bourbon plants are relatively easy to grow and are resistant to a wide range of pests and diseases.

However, they are vulnerable to frost and require a moderate amount of rainfall in order to thrive. Bourbon is often used as a base for coffee blends, as its flavor profile is versatile and can be combined with other coffees to create unique and complex blends. Overall, Bourbon is a highly sought-after Arabica cultivar that is prized for its exceptional taste and versatility in the coffee industry.


Caturra is a cultivar of Arabica coffee tree that is widely grown in Colombia, Central America, and Brazil. It was first discovered in Brazil in the early 20th century and is a mutation of Bourbon. Caturra is known for its intense and sweet flavor profile, which is similar to Bourbon but with a slightly lower acidity.

The coffee beans of Caturra are small and round, making them easier to harvest and process. The tree produces high yields and is resistant to many diseases, which makes it a popular choice for coffee farmers. Caturra is often used as a base for coffee blends due to its balanced yet distinct flavor. Its flavor profile has notes of sweet chocolate, caramel, and nuts, as well as a hint of citrus. It is also known for its aroma of jasmine and lavender.

Caturra is a versatile cultivar that can be used for different brewing methods, including drip, pour over, and espresso. In Colombia, Caturra is often grown at high elevations, which contributes to its unique flavor profile and acidity. Overall, Caturra is a highly sought-after cultivar that is prized for its outstanding flavor profile, high yield, and disease resistance.


Catuai is a hybrid coffee cultivar that was developed in Brazil by crossing Mundo Novo and Caturra. It was first introduced in the 1970s as a way to combat the spread of coffee leaf rust, a fungal disease that can decimate coffee plantations. Catuai is popular among coffee growers because it is highly productive, has a compact size and is resistant to diseases and pests. It is grown in many coffee-growing regions, including Brazil, Central America, and East Africa.

Catuai has a unique flavor profile that is influenced by the altitude and climate of the region in which it is grown. Generally, Catuai coffee has a medium body and a smooth, clean taste with hints of chocolate and nuts. It is known for its brightness and acidity, which makes it ideal for blending with other coffees or serving as a single-origin coffee.

One of the unique characteristics of Catuai is that it is a dwarf cultivar, which means that it has a short stature and a high yield. It is a popular choice for smallholders and growers with limited space because it can be planted at high density in order to increase yield per unit area. The compact size of the plant also makes it easier to harvest, as the cherries are within easy reach of pickers.

Catuai plants are typically grown at altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 meters above sea level. This altitude range provides optimal growing conditions for the cultivar, as it allows for slower fruit ripening and a longer maturation period. This results in a deeper, more complex flavor profile than lower altitude cultivars, with notes of caramel, fruit, and citrus.

Catuai is also known for its versatility, as it can be used for both espresso and drip coffee brewing. This is due to its balanced flavor profile, which makes it a popular choice for blends that require a consistent taste and body. It is often blended with other cultivars such as Typica, Bourbon, and Mundo Novo to create complex and unique flavor profiles.

Mundo Novo

The Mundo Novo cultivar is one of the most widely planted Arabica varieties in the world today. This cultivar was developed in Brazil during the 1940s by crossing two other Arabica varieties, Typica and Bourbon. The Mundo Novo cultivar is known for its excellent cup quality, which is characterized by a balanced mixture of sweetness, acidity, and body. The flavor profile of Mundo Novo is particularly notable for its chocolate and nutty notes, which are often complemented by hints of fruit and floral tones.

This cultivar is especially well-suited for medium and darker roasts, which bring out its full-bodied richness and smooth texture. Mundo Novo is also known for its excellent disease resistance, which makes it a popular choice for farmers seeking to cultivate Arabica crops that are resistant to pests and other environmental threats. Overall, the Mundo Novo cultivar is an excellent choice for anyone seeking a delicious and well-balanced cup of coffee with a rich and complex flavor profile.


One of the most highly regarded Arabica varieties is the Geisha cultivar. Originally from Ethiopia, this coffee has become world-renowned for its exceptional cup quality. The flavor profile of Geisha coffee is often described as delicate, with a light body and bright acidity. The aroma can be floral, with notes of jasmine, bergamot, and lemon zest. On the palate, the flavor can be complex and nuanced, with hints of stone fruit, tropical fruit, and honey.

The aftertaste is clean and persistent, with a sweet finish. Geisha coffee is often grown at high altitudes, which contributes to its exceptional quality and unique flavor profile. The varietal is known for its low yield and susceptibility to disease, which makes it challenging to grow, and also contributes to its high price tag. However, for coffee connoisseurs, the exceptional taste and aroma of Geisha coffee more than justify the cost.

Flavor Profile Of Arabica


The acidity of Arabica coffee beans is a critical aspect of the flavor profile and greatly influences the overall taste of the brew. Arabica cultivars are known to have a range of acidity, from low to high, which contributes to the complexity of the coffee’s flavor. The acidity in Arabica beans is primarily attributed to the presence of organic acids like malic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid. These acids contribute to the fruity and tangy notes that are characteristic of Arabica coffee. The level of acidity is influenced by factors like altitude, soil composition, and the climate of the region where the beans are grown.

Acidity is an essential characteristic of high-quality Arabica coffee and is often associated with brightness or liveliness. A low acidity coffee will have a softer, less pronounced flavor, while high acidity coffee will have a bright, tangy flavor. However, too much acidity can also be unpleasant and overpowering. A balanced acidity level is crucial to achieving a desirable flavor. The acidity level also affects the body of the coffee. High acidity coffee tends to be light-bodied, while low acidity coffee is heavier.

Roasting is another determining factor in the acidity level of coffee. Lighter roasts tend to preserve the acidity of the coffee, while darker roasts typically have a lower acidity level. It’s important to note that the acidity of Arabica beans does not necessarily equate to sourness. A well-balanced acidity level will contribute to the overall flavor profile without overpowering the other taste characteristics.

Acidity is an essential element in the overall taste and flavor profile of Arabica coffee. It contributes to the fruity and tangy notes that are characteristic of high-quality coffee. The acidity level is influenced by various factors, including soil composition, altitude, and climate. Roasting is also a critical factor in determining the acidity level of coffee. Achieving a balanced acidity level is crucial to achieving a desirable flavor profile.


The body of Arabica coffee is a crucial aspect of its flavor profile. The body refers to the physical sensation of the coffee in the mouth and its texture. Arabica coffee has a relatively light to medium body compared to other types of coffee. This is due to the lower concentration of oils and soluble solids in Arabica coffee beans. The body can also be influenced by the roast level, brewing method, and origin of the beans.

The mouthfeel of Arabica coffee is often described as smooth and silky, with a well-rounded texture. The body is affected by the acidity levels in the coffee, which can be high or low depending on the cultivar and growing conditions. High acidity levels can give the coffee a crisp and bright taste, while low acidity levels can make the coffee taste more mellow and earthy.

Other factors that can affect the body of Arabica coffee include altitude, soil composition, and climate. Coffee plants grown at higher altitudes tend to produce beans with a denser body and more complex flavors. The soil composition and climate can also impact the body and flavor of the coffee by influencing the nutrients available to the coffee plant and the rate of ripening of the beans.

The body of Arabica coffee is a vital component of its flavor profile and is influenced by numerous factors. Understanding and appreciating the body of Arabica coffee can allow coffee drinkers to fully experience the nuanced flavors and aromas of this beloved beverage.


One of the defining characteristics of Arabica coffee cultivars is their unique aroma. Aroma refers to the fragrance or scent of the coffee, which is typically evaluated by smelling the freshly-ground beans or brewed coffee. In Arabica cultivars, the aroma is often described as floral, fruity, or nutty, with hints of chocolate, caramel, or spices.

These aromatic compounds are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released during roasting and brewing, and they contribute to the overall sensory experience of the coffee. The specific aromas present in Arabica cultivars can vary depending on factors such as the altitude, climate, soil, and processing methods used in cultivation. For example, coffee beans grown in high-altitude regions may have a more complex aroma due to the cooler temperatures and slower maturation of the beans.

Similarly, coffee beans that undergo wet processing may exhibit brighter and fruitier aromas due to the removal of the fruit pulp before drying. Evaluating the aroma of Arabica cultivars can be a complex process that requires trained sensory experts to identify and quantify the specific odors and intensity levels present. However, even casual coffee drinkers can appreciate the unique aromas of Arabica coffee, which can add depth and complexity to the overall flavor profile.

Flavor Notes

One of the most exciting aspects of Arabica cultivars is their diverse range of flavor notes. From fruity and floral to chocolatey and nutty, Arabica beans are renowned for their complex flavor profiles. Flavor notes are the specific tastes and aromas that are present in brewed coffee, and they play a crucial role in determining the quality and desirability of a particular bean. Some of the most common flavor notes found in Arabica cultivars include citrus, berry, chocolate, caramel, and nutty undertones.

These notes are influenced by a variety of factors, including the region and altitude in which the beans were grown, the processing method used, and the roast level. Roasting, in particular, can have a significant impact on the flavor notes present in a particular bean. Light roasts tend to accentuate the more delicate, nuanced flavors, while dark roasts bring out the deeper, more robust notes.

Factors Affecting The Flavor


Altitude is a crucial factor in determining the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars. Higher altitude translates to cooler temperatures, which lengthens the bean’s growth cycle and intensifies its flavor. Arabica coffee plants grown at higher altitudes have a denser cellular structure, which contributes to the bean’s complex flavors. Altitude also affects the acidity level of the bean, with higher altitude coffee having a brighter and more vibrant acidity.

However, growing coffee at high altitudes presents challenges such as lower yields due to slower growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. Therefore, Arabica cultivars grown at optimal altitudes, typically between 1200 to 2000 meters above sea level, provide the perfect balance of complexity and balanced acidity. The above paragraph covers the main aspects of how altitude affects Arabica cultivars’ flavor profile.

The paragraph’s content suggests that coffee grown at higher altitudes has a more intense flavor and aroma, which is a crucial piece of information for people who want to understand coffee flavor more deeply. It provides a scientific basis for the coffee jargon of “high-grown coffee” and how it is linked to flavor complexity. The paragraph also notes that Arabica coffee plants grown at higher altitudes also have a higher acid content. The paragraph gives readers an understanding of the importance of altitude in coffee production, and how it can be used to obtain desirable flavor traits.

Soil Type

Soil type is a crucial factor that affects the flavor profile of Arabica coffee cultivars. The type and quality of soil determine the availability of nutrients and minerals that essential for plant growth and development. Generally, Arabica coffee prefers well-drained soils that are rich in organic matter, with a pH range between 5.0 and 6.0. The ideal soil type for Arabica coffee should have a good balance of moisture retention and drainage. Sandy loam soils are preferred as they drain well but still retain enough moisture for coffee plant roots.

Different soil types can produce distinct flavors in coffee. For example, coffee plants grown in volcanic soils may have a smokey or earthy flavor, while those grown in clay soils may have a fuller body with lower acidity. Soils with high levels of nitrogen produce coffee with a brighter acidity and more complex flavors. Additionally, soil composition affects the plant’s susceptibility to pests and diseases, which can further impact the flavor profile.

Understanding the importance of soil type in Arabica coffee cultivation is crucial for achieving high-quality yields. Farmers must ensure soil fertility by adding organic matter through composting and using chemical fertilizers when necessary. Soil type and quality must also be monitored regularly to ensure that plants have access to adequate nutrients, which in turn, contributes to better crop yields and improved flavor characteristics.


Climate plays a crucial role in shaping the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars. Altitude and soil type may be important, but climate is what ultimately defines the growing environment, influencing factors like temperature, rainfall, and humidity. The subtropical highlands of Arabica-growing regions provide an ideal growing environment, characterized by moderate temperatures, ample rainfall, and mild winters.

These conditions lead to slow, even ripening of the cherries, resulting in complex, nuanced flavor profiles. High altitude locations with cooler temperatures and low levels of precipitation lead to slow maturation of the coffee cherries, resulting in a higher acidity and floral notes. On the other hand, warm, humid environments with frequent rainfall produce coffee with stronger chocolate and fruit notes, along with a heavier body.

Processing Method

The Processing Method plays a crucial role in determining the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars. This step involves the post-harvest processing of the coffee cherry, which consists of removing the outer layers to reveal the green bean. There are two primary methods of processing coffee; the washed method and the natural method. The washed method involves the use of water to separate the coffee cherry from the bean, while the natural method involves sun-drying the coffee cherry with the beans inside.

Each of these methods has a significant impact on the taste of the final product. The washed method tends to produce a cleaner and brighter flavor profile, with a more pronounced acidity. This is due to the removal of the mucilage layer during processing, which can impart unwanted flavors to the bean. The washed method is highly favored in regions with high altitude, as the cool climate allows for a slower fermentation process, resulting in a more consistent flavor profile.

In contrast, the natural method tends to produce a fruitier and sweeter flavor profile, with less acidity. This is because the mucilage layer is left intact during drying, imparting flavors from the fruit to the bean. The natural method is commonly used in regions with low altitude and high temperatures, as it speeds up the fermentation process, which can lead to a more diverse flavor profile.It should be noted that there is a third processing method, known as the honey method, which is a hybrid of the washed and natural methods.

This method involves partially removing the mucilage layer, resulting in a flavor profile that is a cross between the other two methods.Ultimately, the processing method used can significantly influence the flavor of the final product. A skilled coffee farmer will carefully select the processing method that best suits the climate and soil in their region, as well as the desired taste profile of their customers. Understanding the impact of processing methods on flavor profiles is an essential aspect of appreciating the diversity and complexity of Arabica cultivars.


The flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is a complex and nuanced topic that requires careful consideration of various factors. The flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is affected by multiple factors, including altitude, soil type, climate, processing methods, and the specific cultivar being grown. Arabica cultivars typically have a floral and fruity flavor profile, with notes of chocolate, caramel, and nutty flavors. However, the specific notes and intensity of flavors may vary depending on the cultivar and the growing conditions.

The acidity of Arabica cultivars can also vary, with some cultivars having a mild and balanced acidity while others may have a more pronounced acidity. The body and mouthfeel of Arabica cultivars can range from light to medium, and the aroma can range from floral and fruity to earthy and woody. Overall, the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is a complex and multifaceted topic, and more research is needed to fully understand the impact of growing conditions, processing methods, and cultivars on the final flavor profile of Arabica coffee.


Arabica cultivars have a unique flavor profile that is influenced by various factors, including varietal characteristics, geographical location, environmental conditions, processing methods, and roasting techniques. Understanding the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars is crucial for coffee growers, processors, traders, and roasters to produce high-quality coffee that meets the expectations of consumers. The flavor profile of Arabica coffee is also affected by the sensory attributes, such as acidity, body, aroma, sweetness, bitterness, and aftertaste, which can be evaluated using various sensory analysis methods, including cupping, descriptive analysis, and consumer testing.

The implications of this study are significant for coffee growers who wish to improve the quality of their coffee by selecting the appropriate cultivars, optimizing the growing conditions, and adopting sustainable practices. Furthermore, coffee processors can use this knowledge to develop processing methods that enhance the intrinsic flavor attributes of different Arabica cultivars. Coffee traders and roasters can also benefit from this information by sourcing and roasting coffees that have unique and desirable flavor attributes.

Future research in this area should focus on exploring the influence of different variables on the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars and developing innovative methods to enhance and preserve the flavor attributes of coffee beans. This can include investigating the role of soil composition, climate change, and genetic diversity on the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Finally, developing new processing techniques that optimize the sensory attributes of coffee beans can also be an important area for future research in this field.

Future Research

Future research on Arabica cultivars should focus on several areas to further our understanding of their flavor profile. First and foremost, the role of terroir on the taste and aroma of Arabica beans needs to be explored in greater depth. Identifying key environmental factors such as soil type, altitude, and climate that influence the flavor of the beans can help farmers optimize their cultivation practices.

Additionally, the genetic makeup of Arabica cultivars also needs to be investigated to better understand their flavor profile. This would include conducting detailed studies on specific genetic markers that contribute to the unique taste and aroma of Arabica cultivars. Moreover, research on the fermentation process during coffee processing should be conducted to determine how it impacts the flavor of Arabica beans.

A better understanding of fermentation can not only help improve the quality but also increase the consistency of flavor across different batches. Lastly, since Arabica coffee is highly susceptible to climate change, research on adapting cultivation practices to ensure sustainable production needs to be conducted. Such research would not only benefit farmers but also contribute to the overall preservation of Arabica coffee as a cultural commodity.

The flavor profile of Arabica cultivars – FAQs

1. What is the flavor profile of Arabica cultivars?

Arabica cultivars have a wide range of flavor profiles, which can be classified into five categories: fruity and floral, sweet and sharp, nutty and chocolate, earthy and spicy, and sour and bitter.

2. What are the main factors that contribute to the unique flavor of Arabica coffee?

The unique flavor of Arabica coffee is due to factors such as altitude, soil, climate, and processing methods. These factors can influence the acidity, body, aroma, and sweetness of the coffee.

3. How does the roast level affect the flavor profile of Arabica coffee?

The roast level of Arabica coffee can affect its flavor profile significantly. Lightly roasted Arabica coffee tends to have a brighter acidity and floral notes, while darker roasts bring out more chocolate and nutty flavors and an increased bitterness.

4. What are some popular Arabica cultivars and their flavor profiles?

Some popular Arabica cultivars and their flavor profiles are:

– Colombian: Mild with a caramel and nutty sweetness.
– Ethiopian: Fruity and floral with notes of blueberry, jasmine, and citrus.
– Kenyan: Bright and juicy with a blackcurrant acidity and a strong berry flavor.
– Brazilian: Chocolate, nutty, and sweet with a low acidity.
– Costa Rican: Balanced with a honey-like sweetness and a cocoa finish.

5. How can you enhance the flavor profile of Arabica coffee?

To enhance the flavor profile of Arabica coffee, use high-quality beans, store them correctly, and use fresh, filtered water. Experiment with different brewing methods, temperatures, and ratios to find the best flavor profile for your taste buds.

6. What are some common flavor defects in Arabica coffee?

Some common flavor defects in Arabica coffee are sourness, bitterness, earthiness, and moldy or musty flavors. These defects can be caused by poor harvesting, processing, storage, or roasting practices, and can significantly degrade the quality of the coffee.

Hanson Cheng

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