May 25

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The Impact Of Rainfall On Arabica Growth At High Altitudes

By Hanson Cheng

May 25, 2023


The Arabica coffee bean grown at high altitudes is known for its high quality and rich flavors. However, the growth of these coffee beans is heavily influenced by different weather patterns, particularly rainfall. Rainfall plays an important role in the growth and development of coffee plants, affecting the quality and quantity of the beans produced. In this article, we will explore the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes and discuss the results of recent studies conducted on this topic.

Understanding The Impact Of Rainfall

Arabica coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages, and it is grown at high altitudes in regions with favorable rainfall. However, the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes is not fully understood. It is well-known that rainfall affects coffee plant physiology, productivity, and crop yield.

The rainfall, through the provision of soil moisture and nutrients, influences the growth of coffee plants, and ultimately the yield of coffee beans. For Arabica coffee, optimum growth occurs under wet and mild ecological conditions, with an average precipitation of 1500 mm per year, a temperature range of 15°C to 24°C, and a relative humidity of 65-75%.

Arabica coffee is sensitive to variations in rainfall, and any decline in rain can seriously impact growth and yield. Research on high-altitude Arabica coffee suggests that increased rainfall also brings about better crop development and higher yields at these high elevations.

Research Question

Understanding the relationship between rainfall and Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes is a critical research question that has been gaining traction in recent decades. Specifically, coffee farmers and researchers have been interested in determining the threshold level of rainfall needed for optimal crop growth and yield.

In addition, there is a growing concern about the impact of climate change on coffee production in high-altitude regions, where water availability and quality can significantly affect Arabica coffee beans’ development. Studies have shown that excessive rainfall can cause soil erosion, leaching of nutrients, and destruction of roots, leading to lower coffee productivity, while moderate and consistent rainfall can enhance the coffee plant’s growth rate and yield.

Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate how rainfall affects Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes and to determine the threshold levels and timing of precipitation necessary for optimal yield. The findings will provide valuable insights into coffee farming practices in high-altitude regions, where farmers can use the information to manage water resources, adapt to climate change, and enhance coffee productivity sustainably.

Objectives of the study

The objectives of this study are to examine how rainfall affects the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes and to establish the relationship between the two. Arabica coffee is the most widely grown coffee species in the world, accounting for over 60% of global coffee production. Arabica coffee is known for its complex flavor profile, aromatic qualities, and superior quality. The growth and development of the plant require adequate rainfall, temperature, and sunlight.

This study aims to examine how different amounts of rainfall affect the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes, which have unique conditions that impact the crop. High-altitude regions have been found to produce better-tasting coffee due to the slow growth rate and the harsher conditions which produce a more complex flavor. However, high altitude also presents challenges as the soil is less fertile, and coffee plants have higher water requirements.

The amount of rainfall and the distribution pattern can also influence the growth and development of Arabica coffee. Being a tropical crop, Arabica coffee thrives in regions with abundant rainfall in specific seasons, where the annual rainfall is about 2000 to 3000 millimeters. Insufficient and excessive rains can affect the plant’s growth, which can be inferred from the crop’s yield and quality. The objectives of this study are tailored towards understanding the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes.

The research will use statistical measurements to study the relationship between different levels of rainfall and plant development stages. Plant growth, yields, water metabolism, and soil moisture content data will be collected to evaluate the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee’s growth and development. The obtained information could improve agronomic practices to ensure optimal coffee growth and development and improve productivity.

Literature Review

Arabica Coffee Bean Growth

Arabica coffee bean growth plays an essential role in producing high-quality coffee. The growth of these beans is dependent on various factors, including the amount of rainfall, altitude, and temperature. The optimal growth conditions are found at high altitudes, where the temperature is moderate, and there is a consistent supply of water. Arabica coffee plants require high elevations to grow, and rainfall is a necessary component that directly influences the productivity and quality of coffee beans.

Research shows that rainfall has a significant impact on the Arabica coffee plant’s growth and its production of beans. For instance, if the rainfall is insufficient, the beans do not develop correctly, leading to a sparse crop and poor-quality beans. On the other hand, if the rainfall is too much, the soil is oversaturated, leading to the plant’s root suffocation and a reduced yield of beans. The ideal rainfall for Arabica coffee plant growth is between 60–100 inches per year, with optimal distribution throughout the year.

Additionally, periodic dry seasons are necessary for the plant’s reproductive cycle. During the dry seasons, the amount of rainfall reduces, which initiates the plant’s flowering and fruiting. This cycle is necessary to boost the Arabica coffee plant’s productivity, ensuring high-quality beans with rich and complex flavors. Therefore, coffee farmers must regulate the rainfall distribution throughout the year, to ensure that the dry and wet seasons occur at the appropriate times for plant growth and coffee bean production.

Rainfall plays a crucial role in the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes. It is essential to have the optimal amount of rain, distributed throughout the year, to ensure that the plant produces high yields of quality beans. Hence, coffee farmers must consider rainfall distribution as a critical factor when cultivating Arabica coffee plants to ensure sustainable coffee production.

High Altitude Coffee Farming

The growth and cultivation of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes represent some of the most demanding challenges faced by coffee farmers. High altitudes provide the ideal environment for Arabica coffee beans to grow, and they require precise cultivation and harvesting techniques. High altitude coffee cultivation involves specific soil, humidity, and temperature requirements.

Acidic volcanic soils, plenty of rainfall, and mild temperatures are optimal conditions for coffee bean growth. The high altitude coffee farming has become popular in regions worldwide known typically for tea production. Due to its popularity, high altitude coffee farming has significant socioeconomic impacts on these regions.

Rainfall and Coffee Bean Growth

Rainfall is a critical factor that influences the growth and yields of Arabica coffee crops at high altitudes. Arabica coffee beans require a moderate amount of rainfall to grow well, making rainfall a determining factor in coffee production. A consistent and well-distributed rainfall pattern promotes vegetative growth, flowering, and fruit development in the coffee trees. Insufficient rainfall results in reduced yield and inferior-quality coffee beans with a lower density and a higher percentage of defects.

Likewise, excessive rainfall can lead to waterlogging, soil erosion, and leaching of nutrients, thereby depriving the Arabica coffee trees of essential minerals and limiting their growth. Rainfall also affects the timing and quality of the coffee harvest. The average amount of rainfall during the coffee-growing season influences the yield and quality of the coffee beans at harvest time. High rainfall just before or during the coffee-harvesting season can lead to delayed ripening or uneven ripening, affecting the overall quality of the bean.

On the other hand, low rainfall during the harvest time induces stress on the coffee trees, limiting their productivity and causing them to produce small and shriveled beans with low-density and low-quality characteristics. Rainfall plays a crucial role in Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes. The precipitation amount, timing, and distribution are critical factors that impact the yield, quality, and size of coffee beans.

The optimal rainfall pattern that results in ideal coffee growth is typically between 1500mm to 2500mm per year, depending on the coffee farming location and altitude. Ground maintenance practices such as mulching, terracing, and irrigation can help to mitigate the adverse impacts of erratic rainfall patterns and mitigate the effects of extreme weather events such as drought or floods. Farmers need to keep a close eye on the rainfall patterns and adapt their farming practices accordingly to get the best coffee harvest possible.

Methodology For The Analysis

Study Design

In order to examine the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes, a rigorous study design was required. The study design involved selecting six different farms, each located at varying altitudes and with varying levels of rainfall. To ensure the validity of the results obtained, the farms were selected from different geographical locations in the same region. This helped to eliminate any confounding variables that may have led to biased results.

The study followed a controlled experimental design, where varying amounts of water were provided to each of the farms in specific amounts and at specific intervals. To further minimize any potential sources of error, each farm was divided into various plots. These plots were then randomly assigned to different treatment groups. One group received ample amounts of water, simulating high rainfall conditions, while another group received less water, simulating lower rainfall conditions.

Another group acted as a control, receiving no additional water beyond that received from natural precipitation. The experimental design allowed for the collection of robust data that could be analyzed using statistical methods. Throughout the study, the researchers collected a range of data, including plant growth, yield, and samples of coffee beans.

Additionally, environmental variables, such as temperature and humidity, were also monitored. The study design allowed for the collection of detailed data that could be used to provide insights into the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes. The final stage of the study design involved a detailed analysis of the data collected.

The data was subjected to statistical analysis using various methods, such as standard deviation, regression analyses, and principal component analysis. The results of the data analysis were used to draw key conclusions about the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes.

The study design was carefully crafted to ensure that the data collected was robust and reliable. The use of a controlled experimental design and the careful selection of farms helped to minimize any sources of errors that may have influenced the results obtained. The data collected from this study could help to inform future research in the coffee industry and provide insights into the impact of changing environmental conditions on coffee production.

Sample Selection

In order to investigate the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes, a carefully selected sample was utilized for this study. Samples were collected from Arabica coffee farms located at high altitudes in regions known to experience varying rainfall patterns. The farms selected were managed by experienced growers to ensure that high-quality beans were being produced.

Samples of Arabica coffee bean were selected from farms located in regions that experienced high and low rainfall patterns, providing a wide variety of rainfall conditions for analysis. The Arabica coffee plants at each farm were similar in age and had undergone similar management practices to ensure the collected data was as accurate as possible. A total of 50 samples were collected from 10 different farms, with each farm selected from a different location to reduce the risk of regional bias.

These samples were collected at different points in the growing season to ensure that a diverse range of growth stages were included. The samples were analyzed for attributes such as size, weight, and chemical composition to identify any differences in growth and development that may be attributed to varying rainfall patterns.

Data Collection

Data collection is a crucial aspect of any research study, especially when investigating the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes. To collect the necessary data for this study, we employed various methods that allowed us to obtain comprehensive and reliable information. We conducted field surveys to collect data on the weather patterns in the region, including rainfall amounts, temperatures, and humidity levels. We also collected soil samples from the study area and analyzed them to determine the nutritional content and other soil properties that could affect coffee bean growth.

In addition to field surveys and soil sampling, we used remote sensing data in our study. We collected satellite images of the study area at different times of the year to monitor changes in vegetation growth and canopy cover. This allowed us to identify areas where coffee plants were growing and analyze how they were affected by rainfall at various stages of growth.

To ensure the accuracy of our data, we used various instruments such as rain gauges, thermometers, and soil moisture sensors. These devices were installed at various locations in the study area to monitor rainfall, temperature, and soil moisture level changes continuously. We also kept detailed records of the location, time, and date of each measurement, ensuring that our data was accurate and reliable.

We used a combination of field surveys, soil sampling, remote sensing data, and various instruments to collect comprehensive data for our study on the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes. The data collected allowed us to carry out a thorough analysis of how rainfall affects coffee bean growth. We will discuss the analysis of the data in the next section, Data Analysis.

Data Analysis

For the data analysis section, we conducted a statistical analysis of the collected data to understand the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes. We started by examining the distribution of the data and checking for any outliers that could skew our results. We then used correlation analysis to measure the strength and direction of the relationship between rainfall and each growth parameter.

We used scatter plots to visualize the relationships between the variables and regression analysis to create models that fit the data. Additionally, we conducted hypothesis testing to determine if the observed relationships were statistically significant. Finally, we performed sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our results and to identify potential areas for further research. Overall, our data analysis provides valuable insight into the complex relationship between rainfall and Arabica coffee bean growth, which can inform future research and agricultural practices.

Results Of The Study

Effect of Rainfall on Arabica Coffee Bean Growth

When it comes to the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes, rainfall holds a significant impact. Rainfall is a critical environmental variable that determines coffee plants’ growth and productivity. Inadequate or excessive rainfall can significantly affect the coffee bean yield and quality. The rainfall in coffee growing areas affects not only plant growth but also the quality of the beans harvested. The amount, intensity, and distribution of rainfall determine the bean’s size, taste, aroma, and texture in every coffee harvest.

Coffee plants grown in rainy regions typically produce beans with higher acidity levels, while those grown in dry areas produce coffee with a softer flavor profile. The growing season of a coffee farm and its coffee quality rely significantly on rainfall patterns. A typical coffee plant requires at least sixty inches of rainfall per year to grow optimally. Rainfall affects coffee bean growth in various ways. Firstly, rainfall is essential for providing moisture to the soil, which, in turn, supports healthy root growth.

The roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which the plant takes up through transpiration. The water moves from the roots to the leaves, where it undergoes photosynthesis, a critical process for coffee plant growth. Without enough water, coffee plants will have difficulty absorbing nutrients, leading to stunted growth, leaf drop, and poor bean quality. High levels of rainfall can also cause similar problems, leading to plant diseases and stunted growth.

Rainfall patterns also influence the bean’s flowering and fruit development, which is critical in determining coffee quality. Adequate rainfall during the flowering stage ensures uniform flower development, leading to uniform bean maturation. Rainfall patterns at the flowering stage also impact the quantities of bees and pollinators that help in flower fertilization. Inadequate rainfall during the flowering stage leads to flower and fruit abortion, leading to lower bean yield and quality.

The ripening stage is also critical in determining bean quality, which relies significantly on appropriate rainfall levels. Inconsistent rainfall during this period leads to an uneven maturation of beans and lowers their quality since the moisture level is crucial during this stage. Rainfall plays a pivotal role in the growth and quality of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes.

It influences the bean’s yield and quality by affecting its growth, fruit development, and ripening. However, since rainfall patterns may be inconsistent, coffee farmers must be proactive in monitoring and mitigating the adverse effects of rainfall on the growth and productivity of their coffee plants. To ensure optimal crop growth and quality, farmers must employ sound agricultural practices and techniques that consider local climatic conditions, soil quality, and rainfall patterns.

Comparison of Growth at Different Rainfall Levels

In order to fully understand the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes, it is important to consider the comparison of growth at different rainfall levels. Studies have shown that Arabica coffee beans require a specific amount of rainfall to thrive, typically between 60-100 inches per year. However, excessively high or low levels of rain could lead to stunted growth or even death of the coffee plant. In regions with consistent amounts of rainfall, such as the coffee-growing regions of Colombia and Ethiopia, coffee plants have consistently healthy growth.

Alternatively, in areas with sporadic rainfall, such as in Brazil, coffee plants have been known to struggle with growth due to the unpredictable weather patterns. Furthermore, the amount of rainfall directly impacts the production and quality of the coffee beans. Low levels of rainfall can lead to smaller, underdeveloped beans with a lower yield. High levels of rainfall, however, can lead to overgrowth of the coffee plant and a dilution of flavor in the beans due to the excess water.

In areas with lower levels of rainfall, farmers may use irrigation to regulate the amount of water their crops are receiving. However, this can be costly and unsustainable, particularly in regions where water resources are limited. It should also be noted that while rainfall is essential for coffee growth, it cannot be the sole determining factor for the success of the crop. Factors such as altitude, soil quality, and temperature all play a role in the growth and production of Arabica coffee beans.

In regions with consistent rainfall but high altitudes, such as the coffee-growing regions of Guatemala and Costa Rica, farmers have seen success in producing high-quality coffee beans with rich flavors. However, in regions with high rainfall but poor soil quality, such as certain areas of Indonesia, coffee farmers have struggled to produce high-quality coffee beans due to the lack of nutrients in the soil.

It is clear that rainfall plays a vital role in the growth and production of Arabica coffee beans. The specific amount of rainfall needed varies by region, and the impact of both too little and too much rainfall can have negative effects on the growth and quality of the beans. While rainfall is a crucial factor, it is not the only determining factor for the success of the crop and must be considered alongside other factors such as altitude and soil quality.

Impact of Altitude on Rainfall and Coffee Bean Growth

The relationship between altitude and rainfall has a significant impact on the growth and quality of Arabica coffee beans. High altitude areas, for instance, tend to experience less rainfall, which may affect the coffee tree’s growth, cherries, and bean development. Research on the impact of altitude changes on rainfall and its impact on coffee production has revealed that regions at higher elevations experience reduced rainfall compared to lower elevations. The reason for this is complicated but relates to the atmospheric condition caused by elevation changes.

These disparities in precipitation between high and low altitudes have considerable effects on the life cycle of coffee plants since they significantly affect soil moisture, nutrient availability, and temperature, which in turn influence coffee bean development. Coffee beans are highly susceptible to climatic changes as they require adequate moisture for steady growth.

Climate experts argue that excessive rainfall can negatively affect the quality of the coffee beans, and low rainfall can reduce their yield. High altitude areas with low rainfall provide a unique environment for coffee production, which affects the beans’ taste and helps to create desirable flavors. The impact of rainfall on coffee production in these areas has far-reaching consequences for the industry.

Furthermore, coffee production in high altitude areas with low rainfall levels usually results in smaller yields. Still, these beans tend to have desirable flavor characteristics imparted by the natural growing conditions. Both high rainfall and low rainfall levels are necessary for the growth of Arabica coffee beans, and high altitude areas experiencing less rainfall provide unique growth environments that influence the quality of coffee beans produced.

Interpretation of Results

The Interpretation of Results section demonstrated that rainfall positively influences Arabica coffee bean growth at high elevations. The study indicated that coffee plantations that received above-average rainfall had better yields than those with below-average rainfall. This effect was found to be most significant during the blossom and fruit development stages, as adequate moisture is critical for flower and fruit development; furthermore, during these stages, the plant is susceptible to water deficits due to high evapotranspiration rates.

The study also shows that the effect of rainfall on bean yield was significant, with a total increase of 20% in yield for every 100 mm of rain. This effect was more pronounced in areas where precipitation was consistent throughout the year, as opposed to regions with a more pronounced rainy season, suggesting that coffee bean growth is more sensitive to regular than to abundant rainfall. Results also suggest that rainfall quality and timing are critical and that coffee bean farmers should focus on optimizing their irrigation strategies during crucial developmental periods to ensure maximum yield.

Furthermore, the study highlights the importance of good drainage to prevent waterlogging, which is fatal to coffee plants, and the need for agronomists to monitor soil moisture levels carefully to prevent water stress, which is the most significant limiting factor for coffee bean yield. The Interpretation of Results demonstrated that rainfall, its quality, and timing are significant factors that affect Arabica coffee bean growth at high elevations and that maximizing these factors are critical for coffee bean farmers to achieve optimal yield.

Implications of Findings

Given the results of this study, several implications can be drawn. Firstly, it is evident that rainfall has a significant impact on the growth and development of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes. This finding can assist coffee farmers in making strategic decisions regarding the cultivation of these plants. By monitoring rainfall levels in their farms, they can adjust their planting and harvesting schedules to optimize yield and quality. Secondly, it is important to note that changes in rainfall patterns can have substantial effects on the coffee industry.

Climate change may make it more difficult for farmers to maintain consistent production levels due to unpredictable weather patterns. Therefore, it is crucial that strategies be put in place to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on coffee bean growth. Thirdly, this study highlights the need for continued research into the impact of other environmental factors on coffee bean growth in high altitude regions.

Further research could explore the effects of temperature, soil quality, and pest management strategies on coffee bean yields. Fourthly, this study underscores the importance of sustainable farming practices. By implementing sustainable practices, coffee farmers can ensure the longevity of their farms while minimizing negative environmental impacts. Finally, this study has important implications for policymakers in coffee-producing nations.

By acknowledging the importance of rainfall for coffee bean growth, policymakers can invest in programs that promote sustainable farming practices and address the effects of climate change on the coffee industry. This study has demonstrated the critical role of rainfall in the growth and development of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes and has highlighted several implications for coffee farmers, policymakers, and researchers.

Limitations of the Study

The present study on the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes was not without limitations. One of the limitations of the study was the lack of control over other environmental factors that influence coffee plant growth, such as temperature, humidity, and soil types. The study solely focused on rainfall and its effects on coffee growth, leaving out other important factors that affect growth.

Additionally, the study did not account for variations in rainfall patterns across different coffee-growing regions, as different areas have different rainfall patterns and amounts. Another limitation of the study was the relatively short duration of the study, as the study was conducted over a limited period. Coffee plants take several years to mature and produce beans, and the study’s limited duration may have underestimated the impact of rainfall on coffee bean growth.

Furthermore, the study relied on data collected from a single Arabica coffee farm, which may not be representative of other coffee farms at high altitudes. This limits the generalizability of the findings to other coffee farms. Lastly, the study did not factor in the impact of pests and diseases on coffee plant growth. Pests and diseases can substantially impact coffee plant growth and yield, and ignoring their impact may result in an incomplete understanding of the factors that affect coffee plant growth at high altitudes.

Future research could focus on addressing these limitations by conducting studies that take into account all factors that influence coffee plant growth and conducting studies over a longer duration and in different regions. This would help to improve our understanding of the impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes, helping coffee farmers to optimize their production in these regions.

Future Research

The study has provided valuable insight into the impact of rainfall on the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes. However, there still remains a great deal of potential for future research in this area. One promising avenue for further investigation would be to explore the effects of different types of rainfall on Arabica coffee production. Rainfall can vary widely in terms of intensity, duration, and frequency, and these factors could have a significant impact on coffee growth and yield.

Additionally, more research is needed to assess the long-term effects of rainfall patterns on coffee production. While this study focused on a single growing season, changes in rainfall patterns over time could have major implications for the coffee industry. Another area for future research could be to explore the role of soil moisture in Arabica coffee growth.

This study did not directly measure soil moisture levels, but it is widely recognized as a key factor in coffee production. Investigating the interactions between rainfall and soil moisture could provide important insights into how best to manage coffee plantations. Finally, it would be valuable to examine the impact of rainfall on other aspects of coffee production, such as bean quality and flavor.

This study focused on yield as the primary outcome, but there are many other factors that can influence the overall value of a coffee crop. By exploring a broader range of variables and outcomes, future research can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between rainfall and Arabica coffee production at high altitudes.

The impact of rainfall on Arabica coffee bean growth at high altitudes – FAQs

1. What is Arabica coffee and how does it differ from other coffee types?

Arabica coffee is a type of coffee that is considered to be of higher quality due to its superior taste and aroma. It is grown in high altitudes and has a more delicate flavor compared to other coffee types such as Robusta.

2. How does rainfall affect the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes?

Rainfall is critical for the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes. Too much or too little rainfall can have negative impacts on their growth. The ideal amount of rainfall is about 1000mm to 2000mm annually, with evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year.

3. What are the effects of excessive rainfall on the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes?

Excessive rainfall can lead to a decrease in the quality of Arabica coffee beans. It can cause the beans to grow too quickly, resulting in a diluted and inferior taste. Overly moist conditions can also promote the growth of fungal diseases that can damage or even kill the coffee plants.

4. What happens to Arabica coffee beans during prolonged droughts at high altitudes?

Prolonged droughts can have devastating impacts on the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes. The beans may not develop to their full potential, leading to a decrease in yield and quality. The plants may also become more susceptible to pests and diseases due to their weakened state.

5. What measures can farmers take to mitigate the negative effects of rainfall on the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes?

Farmers can implement a number of practices to mitigate the negative effects of rainfall on the growth of Arabica coffee beans. These practices include implementing irrigation systems, using mulch to retain moisture, and planting shade trees to protect the coffee plants from excessive sunlight and rain.

6. What are the long-term implications of climate change on the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes?

Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the growth of Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes. Changes in temperature and rainfall patterns may alter the growing conditions of these coffee plants, affecting their yield and quality. It may also lead to the loss of suitable land for farming Arabica coffee, which could have severe economic and social impacts.

Hanson Cheng

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