April 27


Everything You Need To Know About The Origin of Coffee Beans

By Hanson Cheng

April 27, 2023

Dive into the fascinating world of coffee with this comprehensive article that explores its ancient origins, the different types of beans, major growing regions, and cultivation methods. Learn about the rich history of coffee, from its discovery in Ethiopia to its arrival in Europe and the Americas. Discover the distinct characteristics and flavors of Coffea Arabica and Coffea Canephora (Robusta), along with some lesser-known coffee variants.

Get an overview of the main coffee-growing regions, including Central and South America, Africa, and Asia-Pacific region, and how their beans and flavors differ. Understand the climate, altitude, planting and harvesting techniques, and processing methods involved in coffee cultivation. Finally, examine the impact of coffee cultivation on the environment, and how sustainable and ethical practices can help preserve biodiversity and reduce pollution.

History and Ancient Legends of Coffee

Discovery of coffee beans in Ethiopia

The history of coffee dates back to the 9th century, with its origins in the ancient coffee forests of Ethiopia. According to legend, a goat herder named Kaldi discovered the energizing effects of coffee beans when he noticed his goats becoming unusually energetic after eating the berries from a coffee plant. Intrigued by the effect, Kaldi brought the berries to a local monastery where a monk threw them into a fire, which resulted in the aroma of roasted coffee beans. The monks then crushed the beans, brewed the beverage, and discovered that it helped them to stay awake during long hours of prayer.

Spread of coffee into the Arabian Peninsula

By the 15th century, coffee had spread to the Arabian Peninsula, where it was first cultivated in Yemen. Its popularity among Arabs soared as it became an integral part of their social and cultural life. From the Arabian port city of Mocha, coffee beans were traded and exported to Persia, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey, contributing to the spread of coffee culture throughout the Middle East.

Role of Sufi monasteries in coffee expansion

Sufi monasteries played a significant role in the expansion of coffee. As the consumption of coffee spread, so did its association with religious practices. Sufi mystics discovered that the stimulating effect of coffee aided them in staying awake during long nights of prayer and meditation. As a result, coffee became widely used in these monasteries, eventually spreading among the general public.

Trade between Arabs and Venetians/Venetian merchants

During the 16th century, European travelers and traders began to learn about coffee while they were visiting the Ottoman Empire. Venetian merchants were the first Europeans to import coffee to Europe, where it was initially met with skepticism due to its association with the Islamic world and its stimulating effects. However, coffee’s popularity grew quickly, and it was eventually embraced by the European public.

Arrival of coffee in Europe and the Americas

Coffee was first introduced to Europe in the early 17th century through Venice, and from there, it quickly spread throughout the continent. The first European coffeehouse opened in Venice in 1645, which was followed by the opening of coffeehouses in England, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. Coffeehouses became centers of social activity, providing a space for political discussions, business transactions, and cultural exchange.

Adoption of coffee by European and colonial culture

Coffee quickly gained popularity in European society, with royal endorsements, scientific endorsements, and popular culture promoting its consumption. In the 18th century, the British East India Company introduced coffee to its colonies in India and the Caribbean, which contributed to its eventual spread to the Americas.

Coffeehouses and their impact on society

Coffeehouses played a significant role in shaping the social, intellectual, and economic landscape of the time. They fostered the exchange of ideas, facilitated business transactions, and served as meeting places for people from all walks of life. In fact, coffeehouses were sometimes referred to as “penny universities,” as they provided an opportunity to learn and share ideas for the price of a cup of coffee.

Role of Colonization in the Expansion of coffee cultivation

As European colonizers expanded their territories, they also introduced coffee cultivation to new regions, including South and Central America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The introduction of coffee to these regions marked the beginning of the global coffee trade, which would subsequently transform the economies and societies of many countries around the world.

Types of Coffee Beans

Coffea Arabica

Origin and natural habitat

Coffea Arabica is native to the highland regions of Ethiopia and is considered the first species of coffee to be cultivated. It now accounts for more than 60% of global coffee production and is primarily grown in Latin America, Central and Eastern Africa, and parts of Asia.

Characteristics and flavor profile

Arabica beans are generally considered superior in taste compared to other coffee species. They produce a more delicate and complex flavor profile, often characterized by notes of fruit, chocolate, and nuts. Arabica plants are more difficult to cultivate and are susceptible to pests and diseases, contributing to their higher price in the market.

Coffea Canephora (Robusta)

Origin and natural habitat

Coffea Canephora, commonly known as Robusta, is native to West and Central Africa. This species is more resilient and easier to cultivate compared to Arabica, and it now accounts for about 40% of global coffee production. Robusta is predominantly grown in Africa, Southeast Asia, and Brazil.

Characteristics and flavor profile

Robusta beans are generally less prized for their taste compared to Arabica. They have a stronger, more bitter flavor profile, and can also be higher in caffeine content. However, Robusta beans are often used in blends to provide a fuller body and more crema in espresso.

Lesser-known coffee variants

Excelsa, Liberica, and others

Although Arabica and Robusta are the most predominant coffee species, there are several lesser-known species worth mentioning, such as Excelsa and Liberica. Excelsa, sometimes referred to as a subspecies of Liberica, is unique for its tart, fruity flavor and is typically grown in Southeast Asia. Liberica is a larger coffee bean with a distinct flavor, often described as smoky or woody, and is primarily cultivated in the Philippines.

Their cultivation and flavor profiles

While these lesser-known coffee variants contribute only a small portion to the global coffee production, they offer coffee enthusiasts an opportunity to explore unique flavors and help support the genetic diversity of coffee cultivation.

Main Coffee Growing Regions

Central and South America

Central and South America are home to some of the world’s most famous coffee-growing regions. The region’s ideal climate, rich soil, and high altitudes create the perfect environment for cultivating flavorful and aromatic coffee beans.

Brazil as the largest coffee producer

Brazil is the largest coffee producer in the world, responsible for roughly one-third of global coffee production. The country’s diverse climate and vast landscape allow it to grow various types of coffee, including Arabica and Robusta beans. Brazilian coffee is known for its nutty, chocolate, and caramel flavors, with a low acidity and medium body.

Some of the most famous coffee-growing regions in Brazil include Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo, and Bahia. These regions produce a wide range of coffee profiles, from the mild and balanced beans of Minas Gerais to the more fruity and bright coffees from São Paulo.

Colombia, Costa Rica, and other notable producers

Colombia is another significant coffee producer in Central and South America. Known for producing Arabica beans with a mild, well-balanced flavor profile, Colombian coffee is often described as having a medium body, bright acidity, and fruity or nutty notes.

Costa Rica is famous for its high-quality Arabica beans, which showcase a bright acidity, medium body, and fruity or citrus flavors. The country’s varied microclimates and innovative processing methods have led to the development of unique coffee profiles, such as honey-processed beans or those from the Tarrazu region.

Other notable coffee producers in Central and South America include Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Mexico, and El Salvador. Each country has its distinct coffee-growing regions and profiles, with nuances influenced by factors such as altitude, soil type, and processing methods.

Regional differences in bean types and flavors

Different countries and regions within Central and South America produce specific bean types and flavors based on their unique climate, soil, and cultivation methods. For instance, the higher altitude regions in Colombia, Guatemala, and Costa Rica are particularly suited to growing high-quality Arabica beans, which are known for their mild, well-balanced flavors and bright acidity. Lower altitude regions, on the other hand, may be more suitable for growing the more robust, full-bodied Robusta beans.

African Region

Ethiopia’s historical significance and unique beans

Ethiopia is considered the birthplace of coffee, with the coffee plant originating from the country’s Kaffa region. Coffee cultivation in Ethiopia dates back over a thousand years, and the country remains a significant coffee producer today, with a diverse range of flavors and bean varieties.

Ethiopian coffee is known for its distinct flavor profiles, which can range from fruity and floral to earthy and spicy. Some of the most famous Ethiopian coffee-producing regions include Yirgacheffe, Sidamo, and Harrar, each with their taste characteristics and favored brewing methods.

Kenya, Tanzania, and other notable producers

Kenya is another major coffee-producing country in Africa, with a focus on high-quality Arabica beans. Kenyan coffee is often praised for its bright acidity, full body, and complex flavor profiles, which can include notes of fruit, citrus, and wine.

Tanzania is also a significant producer, with its coffee-growing regions situated along the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and the Southern Highlands. Tanzanian coffee beans are known for being well-balanced, with a bright acidity, a light to medium body, and flavors that can range from fruity to caramel and chocolate.

Other notable African coffee producers include Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, with each country offering unique bean types and flavors influenced by factors such as altitude, processing methods, and regional climate.

Regional differences in bean types and flavors

Much like in Central and South America, the African coffee-growing regions produce distinct bean types and flavors based on their unique climate, soil, and cultivation practices. In general, African coffee beans are known for their bright acidity, complex flavors, and varied profiles that can range from fruity and floral to earthy and spicy.

Asia-Pacific Region

Indonesia as a major producer

Indonesia is a significant coffee producer in the Asia-Pacific region, with its diverse landscape and varying climates allowing for the cultivation of both Arabica and Robusta beans. Indonesian coffee is known for its bold, full-bodied flavor, and low acidity, with earthy, spicy, and even herbal notes.

Some of the well-known coffee-growing regions in Indonesia include Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi. These regions produce unique coffee beans with distinct flavor profiles, such as the earthy and full-bodied Sumatran beans or the bright and balanced Javanese beans.

Vietnam, India, and other emerging coffee regions

Vietnam is the world’s second-largest coffee producer, primarily focusing on Robusta beans. Vietnamese coffee is known for its strong, bitter taste and high caffeine content, making it popular for use in robust espresso blends and Vietnamese iced coffee.

India is another coffee producer in the Asia-Pacific region, with the country’s two primary coffee-growing regions, Karnataka and Kerala, producing both Arabica and Robusta beans. Indian coffee is typically characterized by its mild, balanced flavors, and low to medium acidity, with hints of spice and earthiness.

Other emerging coffee-producing countries in the Asia-Pacific region include Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Each of these regions offers its distinct bean types and flavors, influenced by factors such as altitude, climate, and processing methods.

Regional differences in bean types and flavors

As with the other primary coffee-growing regions, the Asia-Pacific region produces distinct bean types and flavors based on its unique climate, soil, and cultivation methods. Typically, Asia-Pacific coffee beans are known for their bold, full-bodied flavors, low acidity, and earthy, spicy notes. However, nuances and variations exist between different countries and regions, offering a diverse range of coffee profiles to suit every taste.

Cultivation and Processing of Coffee Beans

Climate and altitude requirements

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Cultivating and processing coffee beans for their optimal flavor and aroma requires specific climate and altitude conditions. The two main species of coffee plants, Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta), have unique requirements for their growth.

Arabica coffee plants are considered to produce higher-quality, more flavorful beans and prefer higher altitudes between 1,200 – 2,200 meters above sea level. They thrive amidst cooler temperatures ranging from 15°C to 24°C (59°F to 75°F). Arabica plants are sensitive to frost and cannot withstand extreme heat or prolonged exposure to sunlight.

Robusta coffee plants, on the other hand, grow well in lower altitudes ranging from sea level up to approximately 800 meters. Their ideal temperature range is between 24°C and 30°C (75°F to 86°F). While the Robusta species produces beans with a more bitter taste and higher caffeine content, it is more resilient to disease and pests compared to Arabica.

Both species require adequate rainfall, evenly distributed throughout the year. A long dry season may impede the proper development of coffee cherries, while excessive rainfall can lead to fungal diseases and root rot. Adequate humidity, fertile soil, and proper soil drainage also contribute to the healthy growth of coffee plants.

Planting and harvesting techniques

Planting coffee begins with germinating coffee seeds in shaded nurseries. Once the seedlings develop their first pairs of leaves, they are transplanted into larger, individual containers or directly into the ground. This process typically occurs during the rainy season, allowing ample time for the roots to establish before drier conditions arise.

To maintain healthy coffee plants, pruning, and regular removal of old and diseased branches is necessary, and in some cases, selective shade can be provided to protect sensitive plants from the sun.

Harvesting techniques involve either stripping or selective picking. For Arabica coffee plants, selective picking is the preferred method, as it allows for the collection of ripe cherries only. This process can be labor-intensive, as it may require multiple passes through the plantation. The Robusta species can be harvested through stripping, where all cherries are removed from the tree simultaneously. Both methods may incorporate a combination of machine and handpicking.

Processing methods

The coffee beans we consume are seeds inside the cherries of coffee trees. After picking the cherries, they must undergo processing to remove the fruit pulp and obtain the green coffee beans. There are two primary processing methods: wet processing and dry processing.

In wet processing, the cherries are immersed in water, then pulped using a machine or by hand. The removed pulp is separated, and the beans are fermented in water for 1-2 days to remove any remaining mucilage. The beans are then washed and laid out to dry in the sun or via artificial means.

The dry method involves laying the cherries out in the sun or using drying machines until the moisture content of the beans reaches 10-12%. Hulling machines are used to remove the dried fruit and parchment layers surrounding the beans.

Each processing method impacts the coffee’s flavor profile and environmental footprint. Wet processing typically results in coffee with brighter acidity and cleaner flavors, but has higher water usage and possible pollution concerns. Dry processing can create beans with a fruitier, heavier body, but is more labor-intensive and requires adequate drying conditions to prevent mold growth.

Storage and transportation considerations

After processing, the green coffee beans must be stored before shipping to roasting facilities. Beans should be stored in moisture-proof bags or containers, in cool, dry environments to avoid spoilage or degradation. When transporting green coffee, it is essential to protect the beans from temperature swings or exposure to humidity.

Once roasted, coffee beans degrade quickly due to oxygen, light, and heat exposure. Proper storage and packaging are crucial for maintaining flavor and freshness. This includes using oxygen-barrier bags with one-way valves to release carbon dioxide, while preventing the ingress of oxygen.

To ensure the best possible flavor, it is recommended to consume roasted coffee within two weeks to a month after roasting. Whether at home, in cafes, or during the entire supply chain, proper care and attention should be given to the storage and transportation of coffee beans, maintaining their quality and enhancing our coffee experiences.

Impact of Coffee Cultivation on the Environment

Deforestation and habitat loss

Coffee is one of the most important agricultural commodities in the world, with millions of people depending on it for their livelihoods. Unfortunately, conventional coffee cultivation practices can have devastating impacts on the environment, particularly in areas of high biodiversity.

Deforestation and habitat loss are primary concerns associated with coffee farming. To create space for coffee plants, vast tracts of land are often cleared, leading to the destruction of forests and other ecosystems that provide invaluable resources to both humans and wildlife.

Deforestation and habitat loss are particularly significant in tropical regions, where many of the world’s most important coffee-growing areas are located. These areas are home to countless plant and animal species, many of which are found nowhere else on Earth. When forests are cleared for coffee cultivation, these unique ecosystems are threatened, and the loss of biodiversity can have cascading effects on the entire environment.

Moreover, when large areas of forest are cleared, the important ecological functions that these ecosystems provide, such as carbon sequestration, soil erosion control, and water recycling, are disrupted. This can lead to a decline in the overall health of the environment and can exacerbate issues such as climate change and water scarcity.

Water use and pollution

Coffee cultivation is a water-intensive process, with large amounts of water required for irrigation, processing, and washing of beans. Most coffee-growing regions experience significant amounts of rainfall, but during dry seasons, farmers often rely on local water sources to maintain their crops. As a result, water shortages can occur, impacting both local communities and ecosystems.

In addition to water consumption, coffee production also contributes to water pollution. The processing of coffee cherries generates large quantities of wastewater, which often contains high levels of organic matter, nutrients, and chemicals used in coffee cultivation. If not properly treated, this wastewater can contaminate local water sources, posing risks to human health and wildlife.

Furthermore, the widespread use of agrochemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers in coffee farming can pollute nearby water sources. These chemicals can leach into the soil, contaminating both surface and groundwater, and causing harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health.

Carbon emissions and climate change

Coffee cultivation contributes to carbon emissions and climate change in several ways. Deforestation for coffee plantation establishment releases significant amounts of stored carbon back into the atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Additionally, the use of fossil fuels in coffee production, such as for transportation, machinery, and processing, adds to the overall carbon footprint of the industry.

Moreover, the ongoing impacts of climate change have serious implications for coffee production itself. Rising temperatures and shifting weather patterns can lead to changes in coffee plant growth and yield, as well as the expansion of pests and diseases into previously unaffected areas. In the long term, climate change poses a significant threat to the sustainability and viability of the global coffee industry.

Sustainable and ethical coffee production

Given the environmental concerns associated with traditional coffee cultivation, many farmers, producers, and consumers are seeking more sustainable and ethical ways to grow and source coffee.

Shade-grown coffee and biodiversity

One such practice is shade-grown coffee cultivation, which prioritizes preserving tree cover and native habitats. By growing coffee plants beneath a canopy of trees, farmers can create more diverse ecosystems that support greater biodiversity. This helps to maintain natural pest control mechanisms, reduces the need for synthetic agrochemicals, and contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration.

Organic and Fair Trade practices

Organic and Fair Trade certifications are other tools for promoting more sustainable coffee production. Certified organic coffee is grown without the use of synthetic chemicals or genetically modified organisms, reducing the potential for water pollution and harmful effects on human health and wildlife.

Fair Trade certification, on the other hand, seeks to ensure that coffee farmers receive fair payment and decent working conditions, fostering greater social and economic sustainability in coffee-growing communities.

Alternative cultivation models and methods

Finally, alternative cultivation models and methods, such as agroforestry and polyculture, can help to minimize the environmental impacts of coffee production. By integrating coffee plants with other crops, trees, or livestock, farmers can create more diverse and resilient farming systems that optimize the use of resources, reduce the need for external inputs, and support ecosystem health.

As the global coffee industry continues to grow, it’s crucial to prioritize and invest in sustainable and ethical production methods to protect both the environment and the livelihoods of millions of people around the world.

Origin of Coffee Beans – FAQs

1. How did the discovery of coffee beans occur?

Coffee beans were first discovered in the 9th-century in the Kaffa region of Ethiopia when a goat herder named Kaldi noticed his goats becoming unusually energetic upon consuming the red berries of a wild shrub. Curiosity led to the eventual realization of coffee beans’ stimulating properties.

2. Where were the first coffee beans cultivated?

The first documented cultivation of coffee beans occurred in modern-day Yemen during the 14th century. The beans were brought over from Ethiopia and eventually cultivated by the Sufi monastic communities who enjoyed them for their stimulating effects during long prayer sessions.

3. When was the first coffee house established?

In the 15th century, the first coffee houses, known as Kaveh Kanah, emerged in the Middle East, spreading from Persia, Egypt, and Constantinople. These establishments cemented coffee’s role as an important social and cultural institution, providing a space for intellectual exchange, conversations, and cultural activities.

4. How did coffee consumption spread to Europe and the Americas?

European travelers and traders discovered coffee during their visits to the Middle East during the 17th century. Upon returning to Europe, they introduced coffee beans and the concept of coffee houses. Eventually, Europeans established coffee plantations in their colonies, leading to the spread of coffee cultivation in the Americas.

5. What role did the Dutch play in spreading coffee production?

In the 17th century, the Dutch obtained a few coffee plants and cultivated them in their botanical gardens. They later established the first European-owned coffee plantations in Sri Lanka, and then Java (Indonesia). The Dutch played a significant role in commercializing coffee production and distribution across the world.

6. How has the process of coffee production evolved over the years?

Since its discovery, coffee production has witnessed considerable advancements. Initial open sun drying methods gave way to improved techniques like machine drying and wet processing. Additionally, modern technology and research enable the development of superior coffee bean varieties and sustainable farming practices.

Hanson Cheng

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