June 24


Master The Latte Art in Espresso-Based Drinks

By Hanson Cheng

June 24, 2023

Latte art is the beautiful and intricate designs created in espresso-based drinks that are almost too beautiful to drink. This art form elevates the simple act of drinking coffee to a visually appealing experience by using milk foam as an artistic medium. While it may seem like a trivial detail, latte art has become an essential aspect of modern-day coffee culture. The art of latte art takes skill, precision, and creativity and the resulting designs are a beautiful testament to a barista’s craft. In this article, we will explore the world of latte art and discover the techniques, tools, and designs that are utilized to create these stunning works of art.

Overview Of Latte Art

Latte Art is the practice of creating designs or patterns on the surface of espresso-based coffee drinks by steaming or frothing the milk used to create the drinks. The designs or patterns are typically created using a technique called free pouring, which involves pouring the milk into the coffee while moving the jug in specific ways to create the desired design. Latte Art is a relatively recent development in the world of specialty coffee, with the practice first becoming popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, Latte Art is an important part of cafe culture around the world, and many baristas consider it to be an essential skill.

Latte Art is a visually striking and creative way to enhance the aesthetics of espresso-based coffee drinks. It is an artistic expression that requires a combination of technical skill, creativity, and attention to detail. The practice of creating Latte Art has been compared to other art forms such as painting and sculpture, as it involves creating visual designs on a three-dimensional canvas.At its core, Latte Art is about elevating the coffee drinking experience and adding a sense of artistry to the process. Many coffee lovers appreciate the skill and creativity that goes into creating a beautifully crafted Latte Art design.

From a marketing perspective, Latte Art is also an effective way to attract customers and build brand recognition. Customers are often drawn to cafes and coffee shops that have a reputation for creating beautiful and creative Latte Art designs. Although Latte Art is a highly creative and visually appealing practice, it is also a technical skill that requires a great deal of practice and expertise to master. To create Latte Art, baristas must have a strong knowledge of coffee brewing and milk frothing techniques.

They must also possess a keen eye for design and be able to execute complex pouring techniques with precision. These skills take time and effort to develop, and many baristas invest years in training and practice to perfect their Latte Art skills.Despite its challenges, Latte Art is a rewarding and highly regarded practice within the specialty coffee industry. It has helped to elevate the status of coffee from a simple beverage to an art form, and it continues to inspire creativity and innovation among baristas around the world.

Types of Espresso-Based Drinks

Flat White

Flat white is a popular espresso-based drink that traces its origins to Australia and New Zealand. Consisting of a double shot of espresso and steamed milk, this drink has a velvety texture that results from the careful microfoaming of the milk. The term “flat” refers to the absence of any visible foam on top of the drink. In contrast to cappuccino, which has a thick layer of frothed milk, flat white has a finer and smoother texture. The key to preparing a great flat white lies in the barista’s ability to achieve a perfect balance between espresso and milk.

It requires using freshly roasted beans, extracting espresso shots at the right temperature and pressure, and steaming the milk to the correct temperature and consistency. Baristas use a variety of milk steaming techniques to create latte art, such as pouring the steamed milk into the espresso in a circular motion. Drinking a flat white offers a unique taste experience that combines the boldness of espresso with the smoothness of steamed milk.

Techniques for Creating Latte Art

Milk Steaming

The process of milk steaming involves heating and frothing milk to achieve a desired texture and consistency for the perfect latte art. Achieving the desired texture is critical as it can affect the taste, appearance, and presentation of the drink. The process of milk steaming begins with selecting the appropriate type of milk, with whole milk being the most popular choice due to its ability to produce a creamy texture.

The milk steaming process involves three main stages, which include stretching, aerating, and texturing. During the stretching stage, the steam wand is positioned at the bottom of the milk jug to create a vortex that draws in air and expands the milk volume. This technique creates a layer of microfoam that forms on the surface of the milk.

The next stage is aerating, where the steam wand is moved momentarily below the surface of the milk, introducing more air into the milk. This stage is crucial in developing the texture of the milk foam. Lastly, the texturing stage occurs when the milk is heated to the optimal temperature of between 60-65 degrees Celsius. At this point, the milk’s volume doubles, and small bubbles form to create the desired microfoam texture.

To achieve the perfect texture, it is essential to pay attention to the sound created during the milk steaming process. The sound produced by the steam wand is an indication of the milk’s temperature and texture and allows baristas to customize their steaming techniques to suit the specific drink or latte art designs. The final result of the milk steaming process is a glossy, velvety textured milk that is perfect for latte art, which can be served alone or as a base for various espresso-based drinks.

Milk steaming is an essential skill for any barista who wants to master the art of latte art and produce visually appealing drinks that match the perfect taste. By following the three stages of milk steaming and paying attention to the sound produced during the process, baristas can produce the ideal foam texture that is vital in latte art designs and presents beautifully in any coffee shop.

Pouring Techniques

In the world of latte art, the technique used to pour the milk into the espresso-based drink is just as important as the steaming of the milk itself. The pouring technique involves a delicate balance of control, speed, and precision. It’s the step that truly determines whether the latte art design will be successful or not. There are several different pouring techniques that can be used, each creating a different visual effect. The most common techniques include the heart, rosetta, and tulip. The heart technique involves pouring the milk in a circular motion before stopping and dragging the milk through the center to create a heart shape.

The rosetta technique involves pouring the milk in a zigzag motion while simultaneously shaking the pitcher to create the rosetta leaf design. The tulip technique involves pouring the milk in a straight line near the center of the cup before flicking the wrist and pulling the milk through to create a tulip-like shape. Each technique requires different levels of control and can take years to master, but once a barista has perfected them, they can create beautiful designs that not only look impressive but taste amazing too.


Etching is a technique that involves using a tool to draw designs on the surface of the espresso. This technique is usually done after the milk has been poured into the espresso. The tool used for etching can be a toothpick, a skewer, or any other pointed tool. The most common designs etched on the surface of the espresso include hearts, flowers, and swans. Etching is an important technique used in latte art because it adds a personal touch to the drink and makes it visually appealing.

To achieve the best results, one needs to have steady hands and a good eye for detail. Etching is a great way for baristas to express their creativity and showcase their skills. In addition, etching adds value to the drink and can make it stand out in a competitive market. Etching is one of the most important techniques used in latte art, and it requires practice and dedication to master.

Free Pouring

Free pouring is one of the most challenging pouring techniques to master in latte art. This technique involves slowly pouring steamed milk into a shot of espresso in a controlled manner to create intricate designs and shapes on the surface of the drink. It requires a great deal of practice to perfect, but the results can be stunning. The key to free pouring is to control the speed and angle of the pitcher as you pour, allowing the milk to mix with the espresso while maintaining the distinct layers.

One of the most popular designs in free pouring is the heart, which involves pouring a stream of milk into the center of the espresso shot and then dragging the pitcher through the stream to create a heart shape. Another popular design is the rosetta, which involves pouring a stream of milk in a circular motion before dragging the pitcher through the center of the design to create the rosetta shape. Free pouring is an essential skill for any aspiring barista, as it is an excellent way to add a touch of elegance and sophistication to an espresso-based drink.

Common Latte Art Designs


Heart is one of the most fundamental designs in latte art. It is often the first design that baristas attempt to perfect as they develop their skills in creating latte art. The heart-shaped pattern is formed by pouring steamed milk into the espresso shot with a sharp and steady motion, forming a small circle at the center of the cup before pulling the pitcher back towards the near edge. This creates the signature “V” shape, which forms the two sides of the heart, with the bottom point extending slightly down into the base of the cup. A well-crafted heart design should have no visible bubbles or lines, with a smooth texture and glossy finish.

The heart design sets the foundation for more complex designs such as the rosetta or swan, as it requires a solid grasp of milk pouring technique. A heart design can be modified with different variations such as “reverse heart,” where the design is formed upside down or “double heart,” where two hearts are formed in one cup. A heart design on top of an espresso shot not only adds to the visual appeal of the drink but also indicates the quality of the barista’s work, making it a crucial design in the development of latte art skills.


The rosetta is a popular latte art design that involves creating a pattern resembling a rosette flower on top of an espresso-based drink. To create a rosetta, the barista starts by pouring a stream of milk in the center of the espresso shot. As the milk begins to mix with the espresso, the barista moves the pitcher from side to side while pouring a thin line of milk on top in a zig-zag pattern. This creates a design that looks like a rosette when viewed from above.

To finish the rosetta, the barista drags a stirring tool through the center of the pattern, connecting the milk lines and creating a seamless design. The key to creating a perfect rosetta is to maintain a steady stream of milk while moving the pitcher in a smooth, controlled motion. Baristas must also pay close attention to the texture and temperature of the milk to ensure that it blends well with the espresso to create the desired flavor. With practice and skill, the rosetta can be made in a variety of sizes and styles to suit the preferences of the customer.


The Tulip is one of the most challenging latte art designs to master, as it requires a steady hand and a great deal of precision. This design is often seen as a more advanced version of the Heart, as it involves two layers of milk foam instead of just one. To create the Tulip, the barista must start by pouring a small circle of foam in the center of the espresso base. From there, they must create three thin lines by pouring the milk in a specific way, which will form the petals of the Tulip.

These lines must then be connected by gently wiggling the pitcher back and forth in a controlled motion, creating an intricate design that resembles a Tulip. The key to creating a perfect Tulip is to maintain a consistent flow rate while pouring and to keep the pitcher at a consistent angle. This design is often favored by experienced latte artists due to its complexity and visual appeal. Overall, while mastering the Tulip can be challenging, it is a rewarding skill that can take a barista’s latte art to the next level.


The art of latte art is a beautiful and intricate process that requires skill, dedication, and attention to detail. The Swan is one of the most challenging designs to create, and it requires a high level of barista expertise to achieve a perfect likeness. This design resembles a swan, with curved necks, a discernible head, and an elegant protruding tail. To create the Swan design, the barista must follow a series of complex steps carefully. First, they must pour the milk into the espresso shot at a controlled rate, creating a foundation for the design.

Then they must use a delicate hand to draw the swan’s neck, followed by the beak and head, and finally, the tail feathers. This flicking motion creates a subtle swirl that completes the design. Creating a perfect Swan design requires patience and practice, and a steady hand to perfect. The sleek and sophisticated design makes this one of the most coveted designs among latte art enthusiasts. Baristas who master the art of the Swan should be applauded for their skill and dedication to perfecting their craft.


The Phoenix is a latte art design derived from the Swan, but instead of a graceful swan neck, the Phoenix design features a dramatic extension of the wings. This design aims to create a more ethereal and impactful effect by utilizing the smoothness of the milk foam and the crema of the espresso shot. To produce the Phoenix design, one must start by creating a solid foundation that allows for the smooth and steady pour of the milk. The barista should hold the pitcher at a slight angle and start pouring the milk in the middle of the espresso shot, gradually moving to the back of the cup.

With a quick flick of the wrist, the barista must draw out the milk to form an intricate extension of wings, creating the impression of a phoenix in flight. The Phoenix design requires a high level of precision and skill, as any sudden movement can ruin the delicate balance of the design. The Phoenix design is not only visually stunning, but it also enhances the overall taste of the espresso, providing a smooth and creamy mouthfeel. Overall, the Phoenix design is a unique and intricate latte art design that showcases the barista’s skill and creativity, making it a crowd-pleaser in any coffee shop.

Monk’s Head

The Monk’s Head design is a more intricate latte art pattern that requires a higher level of skill. It is also known as the “Freestyle” or “Free Pour.” This design is achieved by first pouring the milk froth on top of the espresso as in the standard latte. Then, using a regular milk pitcher, the barista moves their hand across the milk surface, creating a line of foam resembling a person’s profile or head. The style of the head can be manipulated based on the angle and direction of the pour, creating a range of possible variations.

The Monk’s Head design requires a steady hand, an in-depth understanding of milk frothing, as well as mastery of milk pitcher control to create a beautifully detailed pattern. It’s important to pour the milk with consistent speed and movement, or the pattern will become distorted. The design may be further enhanced by dusting the foam with powdered cocoa to create contrast and depth for a more lasting impression. This design is an impressive coffee art, which when excellently executed, will not only produce a great taste but also a visually appealing beverage that will leave customers with an unforgettable experience.

Tips for Creating Latte Art

Use Fresh Milk

The quality of the milk used in latte art is crucial to producing beautiful and consistent designs. Using fresh milk is imperative in achieving the perfect texture and consistency required for latte art. Fresh milk has a higher fat content, allowing the milk to stretch and create a velvety texture when steamed. The fresher the milk, the more it will be able to hold its structure, allowing for better latte art creations.

Milk that has been sitting for too long may have lost its structure and will not hold the designs as well. For best results, use milk that has been refrigerated and has not exceeded its expiration date. It is also important to note that non-dairy milk alternatives, such as almond or soy milk, can be used for latte art as well. However, due to their lower fat content, they may require different steaming techniques and may not achieve the same level of texture and consistency as traditional dairy milk.

Use the Right Milk Pitcher

The choice of milk pitcher has a substantial impact on the quality of latte art in espresso-based drinks. To start, the pitcher should be made of metal, either stainless steel or copper. Plastic and glass pitchers are not recommended since they can negatively affect the temperature and texture of the milk. Additionally, the pitcher should be the appropriate size – one that fits the amount of milk needed for the drink. Too much extra space will make it harder to create froth, and too little space will make it almost impossible to texturize the milk properly.

The pitcher should also have a pointed spout, as a rounded spout will limit control over the pour. Finally, the handle of the pitcher should be comfortable to hold and provide a good grip. Using the right milk pitcher is essential for creating beautiful latte art designs since it allows for greater precision in the pour which results in better aesthetics. By taking the time to select the correct milk pitcher, baristas can enhance the quality of their espresso-based drinks and provide an experience that meets their customers’ expectations.

Practice, Practice, and Practice

One of the most essential elements of mastering the art of latte art is practice. It takes time and dedication to develop the skills required to create intricate designs on espresso-based drinks. Consistent practice is key to improving the quality of designs, speed and accuracy of milk frothing, and developing a sense of muscle memory. Practicing on a daily basis allows for an elevation in technique, which can lead to better and more consistent latte art.

With every pour, the barista will be able to see changes in their consistency, foam quality, and even how much milk they need to produce the perfect design. In addition to consistent practice, baristas should also experiment with different designs and techniques to expand their repertoire and perfect their craft. Even though practice can be tedious at times, those who take time to regularly practice latte art will reap the many benefits of their dedication.

Experiment with Different Pouring Techniques

Fresh milk and the right milk pitcher are certainly important factors in creating latte art, but experimenting with different pouring techniques can take your skills to the next level. There are numerous styles of latte art, including heart, rosetta, and tulip designs, each with its own pouring techniques. For example, creating a heart design involves pouring the milk into the center of the cup in a quick, smooth motion, followed by dragging the pitcher through the milk to create a point at the bottom.

On the other hand, the rosetta design requires the milk to be poured in a back-and-forth swaying motion to create a leaf shape with defined veins. It’s essential to practice the correct techniques for each design to create the desired outcome. Additionally, experimenting with different pouring techniques can lead to personalized variations. Mix up the pouring direction, speed, and height to create unique designs and express your creativity.

Remember that latte art takes time and effort to master, so be patient and persistent in practicing diverse pouring techniques. By putting in the time and effort to experiment with different pouring techniques, you can elevate your latte art to an expert level and impress both yourself and your customers.

Be Patient

One of the most important things to remember when attempting latte art is to be patient. It takes time and practice to perfect the art of creating beautiful designs in espresso-based drinks. Rushing the process can often lead to mistakes and disappointing results. Take your time while steaming the milk and pouring it into the espresso. Slowly pour the milk into the espresso, starting with the milk closer to the surface and gradually lowering the pitcher as you pour.

This will help you create the desired pattern more accurately. Don’t be discouraged if your first attempts don’t turn out perfectly. Take note of your mistakes and make adjustments for your next attempt. With time and practice, your latte art skills will improve, and you’ll be able to wow customers and friends with your signature designs.

The Art of Latte Art in Espresso-Based Drinks – FAQs

1. What is Latte Art?

Latte art is a method of designing patterns or pictures on the surface of espresso-based beverages by pouring steamed milk into a shot of espresso.

2. Is Latte Art difficult to master?

Yes, Latte art is not easy to master since it requires a lot of practice and patience. It demands the barista to have a steady hand and the ability to pour milk precisely and consistently.

3. What type of milk is best for Latte Art?

Whole milk is the best choice for Latte Art as it has a higher fat content, which allows for better steaming and texturizing. However, non-dairy milk alternatives like almond and soy milk can also be used in the process.

4. What are the essential tools needed for Latte Art?

The essential tools for Latte Art are a milk pitcher, a thermometer, a milk frother or steam wand, and an espresso machine. A different kind of milk pitcher can also be beneficial.

5. How do you create a heart shape in Latte Art?

To create a heart shape in Latte Art, start by pouring milk into the center of the espresso shot and then swivel the milk around. Then, make a small puddle-like oval-shaped motion while pouring deeper into the center creating a heart shape.

6. What are some other Latte Art designs?

Some popular Latte Art designs include rosetta, tulip, bear, swan, phoenix, and pandas. The designs may vary depending on the preference of the barista or the customer.

Hanson Cheng

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