May 30


Discover The History of Robusta Coffee in Uganda

By Hanson Cheng

May 30, 2023

Robusta coffee is a type of coffee bean with a bold, earthy flavor that is grown in several countries around the world. Despite its relatively recent emergence on the global coffee market, the history of Robusta coffee in Uganda dates back to the early 20th century, when European colonizers first introduced the plant to the country. Over the following decades, Uganda became one of the world’s leading producers of Robusta coffee, which is renowned for its distinct flavor and high caffeine content. This article will explore the fascinating history of Robusta coffee in Uganda, from its origins to the present day.

Overview Of The Coffee Industry In Uganda 

The cultivation of coffee in Uganda dates back to the late 19th century. Coffee was introduced to Uganda by British colonialists who brought Arabica coffee seeds from neighboring Kenya. The coffee industry in Uganda saw tremendous growth during the 1920s, but a severe outbreak of coffee wilt disease crippled production. In response to the devastation wrought by the disease, the Uganda Coffee Development Authority (UCDA) was established in 1991 with a mission to reinvigorate the coffee industry.

Robusta coffee, a species of coffee that is native to central and west Africa, was introduced to Uganda in the early 1900s. It quickly gained popularity among farmers due to its hardiness and resistance to pests and diseases. Robusta coffee is grown predominantly in the central and eastern regions of Uganda, where the soils are rich and the climate is conducive to its growth. As of 2021, Uganda was the second-largest exporter of Robusta coffee in the world, accounting for approximately 25% of the global supply.

Today, the coffee industry remains a crucial sector of Uganda’s economy, employing millions of people and generating significant foreign exchange earnings. The UCDA continues to promote the growth and development of the industry through initiatives aimed at improving the quality of coffee and promoting sustainability. While the industry has faced challenges such as climate change and low prices, farmers and stakeholders remain committed to ensuring that Uganda remains a leading producer of high-quality Robusta coffee.

Robusta Coffee in Uganda

The history of Robusta coffee is deeply embedded in Uganda’s economic and social fabric. Robusta coffee was first introduced in Uganda in the late 1800s by British colonialists who recognized the country’s favorable climate and soil for the crop’s cultivation. The crop quickly gained popularity due to its high yields and resistance to pests and diseases, making it an attractive alternative to the Arabica coffee variety that was previously popular in the country.

Today, Robusta coffee is the backbone of Uganda’s coffee sector, accounting for over 80% of the country’s coffee production. The crop is predominantly grown by small-scale farmers, who rely on it for their livelihoods. Uganda’s fertile soil, coupled with favorable climatic conditions, has facilitated the production of high-quality Robusta coffee, which has gained recognition on the global stage. The crop’s popularity has also contributed to Uganda’s economic growth, with the country earning millions of dollars in foreign exchange from its export.

Despite its success, the Robusta coffee industry in Uganda faces several challenges, including low prices, climate change, and pests and diseases. However, stakeholders in the sector remain optimistic, with concerted efforts being made to address these challenges and promote sustainable production. Uganda’s Robusta coffee sector offers a unique example of how agriculture can serve as a catalyst for economic growth and rural development, providing farmers with a reliable source of income and promoting socio-economic well-being in the country.

Early History Of Coffee In Uganda

Its Origin

The history of Robusta coffee in Uganda dates back to the late 19th century when it was discovered growing wildly in the forests around Lake Victoria. According to historical records, it was first described in 1903 by a British explorer and botanist, Sir Harry Johnston, who stumbled upon it during one of his expeditions. Robusta coffee quickly gained popularity in Uganda due to its resilience, hardy nature, and high yields. The discovery of Robusta coffee in Uganda presented a unique opportunity to the local population to cultivate it for both local consumption and export.

The early cultivation of Robusta coffee in Uganda was primarily done by smallholder farmers, who grew it alongside other crops like bananas and beans. The government’s role in coffee production began in the 1920s when it established the Coffee Board of Uganda to regulate the industry and promote coffee production. During this period, coffee production in Uganda increased dramatically, with Robusta coffee being the leading variety produced.

In the 1950s, Uganda became one of the largest coffee producers in Africa, with the majority of its coffee being exported to Europe. However, the industry was heavily affected by political instability and mismanagement in the 1970s, leading to a sharp decline in production. The government’s efforts to revitalize the industry in the 1980s and 1990s were successful, and Robusta coffee production in Uganda has been steadily increasing since then.

Today, Uganda is one of the leading producers of Robusta coffee globally, with the variety being grown in several regions across the country. The coffee is mostly grown by smallholder farmers, who sell it to local traders or cooperatives for export. The government continues to play a vital role in the industry, providing support to farmers through initiatives like the Coffee Development Authority and the National Agricultural Advisory Services.

Expansion and Growth

Government Involvement

The involvement of the government played a significant role in the expansion and growth of Robusta coffee production in Uganda. The government recognized the potential of the coffee industry to boost the country’s economy and embarked on a plan to promote the cultivation and exportation of Robusta coffee. To achieve this, the government established the Uganda Coffee Development Authority (UCDA) in 1991 to regulate, promote and oversee the coffee industry in Uganda.

The UCDA was responsible for providing technical support to coffee farmers and processors, ensuring that quality standards were maintained, and promoting the production and marketing of coffee.  The government also provided financial support to farmers through various funding programs, including the Coffee Development Fund (CDF), which provided affordable credit facilities to coffee growers.

In addition to this, the government implemented policies to attract foreign investment in the coffee industry. The government offered tax incentives, including tax holidays, to investors who were willing to establish coffee processing plants and other related businesses.  The government also created an enabling environment for the private sector to operate by providing infrastructure such as roads, electricity, and water.

These policies and initiatives led to increased private sector participation in the coffee industry, which contributed to the expansion and growth of Robusta coffee production in Uganda. Despite the government’s efforts, challenges such as climate change, pests, and diseases, unstable market prices, and limited access to credit facilities still existed. However, the government continues to work with various stakeholders, including coffee farmers, processors, and exporters, to address these challenges and promote the sustainable growth of the coffee industry in Uganda.

Market Demand

With the increase in demand for Robusta coffee and its impact on production, market demand plays a crucial role in the expansion of Robusta coffee production in Uganda. Due to the growing demand, the government has taken up measures to meet this demand by providing incentives for farmers and providing research and development to improve the quality of the coffee produced in Uganda. The growing demand for coffee in Uganda has led to the government putting in place programs to increase the number of coffee farmers and improve the quality of the coffee produced.

Furthermore, the government has encouraged the establishment of coffee processing plants in Uganda to increase the manufacturing capacity of the coffee produced in the country. This has led to a rise in employment opportunities in Uganda and a significant increase in foreign exchange earnings. The government has also encouraged the production of organic coffee, which has a higher price in the international market.

In addition, the government has encouraged the establishment of coffee auction centers in Uganda to ease the marketing of the coffee produced in the country while also setting quality standards for the coffee produced. The government has also played a significant role in promoting the consumption of coffee locally, hence creating a local market for the coffee produced in Uganda. Although there are challenges faced in the expansion and growth of Robusta coffee production, the government’s involvement in the market demand aspect of Robusta coffee production has been integral to the success of the industry in the country.


The expansion and growth of Robusta coffee production in Uganda have not been without challenges. One of the significant challenges faced by coffee farmers is the threat of pests and diseases. Coffee Berry Disease and Coffee Wilt Disease have significantly affected the yields of Robusta coffee, leading to losses for farmers and the economy. Additionally, inadequate management practices by some farmers, such as using old or improper planting materials, have resulted in low yields.

The government and other stakeholders have taken steps to address these challenges through the development and distribution of improved planting materials and training farmers on proper land management. Another challenge faced by Robusta coffee farmers in Uganda is the lack of infrastructure. Poor roads and insufficient storage facilities have made it difficult for farmers to transport their coffee, resulting in a loss of quality and revenue. However, efforts by the government to improve road networks, establish cooperative societies, and expand storage facilities have helped to address these issues, leading to improved coffee quality and increased profits for farmers.

Market demand for Robusta coffee has also posed a challenge for farmers in Uganda. While the increase in demand has led to higher prices for coffee, it has also resulted in the exploitation of farmers by middlemen and traders who offer low prices for their coffee. The government has taken steps to address this issue through the establishment of price controls, regulating middlemen, and developing direct trade relationships with international buyers.

Modern Era Of Coffee In Uganda

Current State

The current state of Robusta coffee production in Uganda is strong. As of 2021, Uganda is the second-largest producer of Robusta coffee in the world, following Vietnam. The country exports the majority of its coffee, with Europe and the United States being the largest importers. The Ugandan government has put significant efforts into improving coffee production, including funding farmers and investing in equipment and infrastructure.

This has resulted in increased yields and improved quality. However, there are still challenges facing the industry. Climate change is affecting coffee-growing conditions, and there are concerns about the use of pesticides and other chemicals in production. Additionally, low prices for coffee can make it difficult for farmers to earn a profit. Despite these challenges, Robusta coffee remains an essential export for Uganda and a vital source of income for farmers and their communities.


The efforts towards sustainable Robusta coffee production in Uganda have been on the rise in recent years. The government, private sector players, and development partners have all been actively involved in promoting sustainable practices that not only increase productivity but also conserve the environment. One of the key initiatives is the adoption of climate-smart agriculture practices, which aim to minimize greenhouse gas emissions, enhance soil health, and conserve water resources. The use of organic fertilizers, intercropping, and agroforestry systems are also gaining popularity among farmers.

These practices not only conserve the environment but also increase productivity and income levels for farmers. Additionally, there has been an emphasis on establishing and strengthening farmer cooperatives to facilitate knowledge sharing and collective marketing of their produce. This has not only increased the bargaining power of farmers but also increased their capacity to adopt sustainable practices.

The adoption of sustainable Robusta coffee production practices has also been driven by the growing demand for sustainably produced coffee in the international market, with buyers willing to pay premium prices for sustainably produced coffee. Overall, the efforts towards sustainable Robusta coffee production in Uganda are commendable, and with continued support from various stakeholders, the sector is poised to grow and contribute significantly to the country’s economic development while conserving the environment.

Future Outlook

As the world continues to evolve, so does the future outlook for Robusta coffee in Uganda. The government has implemented measures to encourage farmers to increase their productivity and quality through training programs, distribution of improved breeds, and better agricultural practices. One of the strategies implemented involves improving the value chains for coffee, making it more competitive, and creating wealth for the smallholder farmers. The development of infrastructure such as roads has also played a considerable role in facilitating the transportation of the coffee beans from the farms to the markets.

Furthermore, stakeholders in the industry are focusing on increasing the value addition of the coffee by processing and packaging it locally. This move will not only lead to an increase in the weight of exports but will also boost the quality of exports and high-end market accessibility. However, one of the challenges in implementing this strategy has been the lack of capital for investment in machinery and technologies for value addition. To boost the value addition sector, the government and private sector actors are collaborating to provide financing to small-scale processors.

As Ugandan coffee continues to compete globally, the country has identified some of the emerging trends in the sector and is positioning itself to take advantage of them. Some of the trends pushed for by the International Coffee Organization (ICO) include the development of new markets, the use of technology to enhance production, and the development of specialty coffee. Embracing specialty coffee involves demands for specific flavors and tastes, which requires a greater level of organization on the part of farmers to produce the desired quality of coffee beans.

In addition, many countries now demand sustainable, ethical, and ecologically produced coffee, through means of fair trade arrangements, organic certification, or other certifications. While there are challenges to be faced, the future outlook for Robusta coffee in Uganda is optimistic. The government, stakeholders in the industry, and the farmers themselves are working together to improve quality and promote sustainable coffee production. The emerging trends in the sector have presented new opportunities, which the country is well positioned to take advantage of through the adequate investment in the necessary infrastructure and technology.

The history of Robusta coffee in Uganda – FAQs

1. What is the origin of Robusta coffee in Uganda?

Robusta coffee was introduced to Uganda in 1900 by British colonialists. The coffee variety was imported from Congo to the Kaweri Coffee Plantation, located in Bugisu region in Eastern Uganda.

2. What makes Robusta coffee unique compared to other coffee varieties?

Robusta coffee has a higher caffeine content and is known for its strong taste and aroma. The coffee variety is also resistant to pests and diseases, making it a popular choice for coffee farmers.

3. What impact did Robusta coffee have on Uganda’s economy?

Robusta coffee became Uganda’s major cash crop during the 1970s and 1980s, contributing significantly to the country’s economy. The crop is still a major export and provides employment opportunities to many Ugandans.

4. How did the political instability in Uganda affect the Robusta coffee industry?

The political instability that characterized Uganda’s history had a negative impact on the Robusta coffee industry. The industry experienced a decline from the 1980s to the early 2000s, due to a lack of investments in the sector and poor governance.

5. What efforts were made to revive the Robusta coffee industry in Uganda?

Efforts to revive the Robusta coffee industry were made in the early 2000s. These included the privatization of coffee processing and marketing, the establishment of coffee research centers, and the introduction of new coffee varieties. These efforts helped to increase Robusta coffee exports and improve the quality of the coffee produced.

6. What is the current status of the Robusta coffee industry in Uganda?

The Robusta coffee industry in Uganda is currently showing signs of growth and development. The crop is now increasingly being promoted in the international market, and Ugandan farmers are adopting new farming practices to improve the quality and yield of the coffee.

Hanson Cheng

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