May 28


The Interesting Historical Uses of Robusta Coffee Cultivation

By Hanson Cheng

May 28, 2023

Robusta beans are a species of coffee plant that are known for their hardiness and the strength of the coffee they produce. These beans are often used alongside Arabica beans to produce comercial coffee blends. While not as widely consumed as Arabica beans, Robusta has a long and storied history of use, and has been an important part of the coffee industry for many years.

From its origins in Africa to its use in traditional Vietnamese coffee, the Robusta bean has played a vital role in shaping the world of coffee as we know it today. In this article, we will explore the many historical uses of Robusta beans and what makes them such an important part of the coffee world.

Understanding Robusta Beans

Robusta beans, scientifically known as Coffea canephora, are a species of coffee that is cultivated widely across different parts of the world. These beans are typically known for their strong, bitter taste, and are often used in blends for their high caffeine content. With origins in sub-Saharan Africa, the beans have been grown and harvested in different regions for centuries, and their use has been documented throughout history. The historical significance of robusta beans lies in their versatility and adaptability to different growing conditions, which has made them a staple crop for many nations.

Origin of robusta

The origins of robusta beans can be traced back to West Africa, specifically to the regions of Angola and the Congo. They were first discovered and cultivated in the late 19th century, during the European colonization of Africa. Unlike arabica beans, which were already widely traded and enjoyed in the Western world, robusta beans were initially used for local consumption only.

However, as the demand for coffee grew worldwide, and arabica strains appeared to be vulnerable to disease and pests, robusta beans started to gain popularity. They were found to be more resistant to certain pests and could be grown at lower altitudes, making them less expensive to produce. This made them attractive to coffee producers and roasters looking to save money on their production costs.

Over time, robusta beans were introduced to other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia and India, where they continue to be grown and harvested to this day. Today, they are an essential source of income for many farmers and are widely used in various blends of coffee worldwide.

Its cultivation

The cultivation of Robusta beans is a complex process that involves several methodologies. The beans require specific environmental conditions such as high humidity and temperatures ranging from 24 to 28 Celsius for optimal growth. To achieve these conditions, farmers usually plant the beans in moist soils, often under the shade of taller plants or trees to protect the bean plants from the direct sunlight.

Additionally, the use of organic fertilizers such as compost and manure is important in improving soil fertility. The beans are also vulnerable to pest attacks; hence, using pesticides like pyrethroids and neonicotinoids is common among farmers to protect the crops from pests. After the beans’ harvest, farmers dry the beans on a large drying table, during which the beans must be rotated continuously to dry uniformly. Some farmers use mechanical dryers for larger beans producing companies.

The drying process takes several days to complete before the beans can be stored or shipped for further processing. Once the drying process is complete, the beans are then roasted, ground, and brewed to make coffee. The entire cultivation process of Robusta beans is crucial in determining the quality and taste of coffee produced, making it essential for farmers to follow the necessary cultivation methodologies to provide high-quality beans to the market.

Historical Uses Of Robusta Cultivation

Coffee Production

The robusta bean has played a significant role in the coffee production industry throughout history. Unlike the arabica bean, which is primarily used in specialty coffees, robusta beans are commonly used in mass-market coffee brands due to their lower cost, higher caffeine content, and pest resistance.

The use of robusta beans in coffee blends dates back to the 19th century, when French colonists began cultivating them in Vietnam. Robusta beans were initially used in espresso blends due to their higher pressure tolerance and ability to create a thick crema. In the early 20th century, Italian coffee companies embraced robusta beans as an affordable alternative to arabica beans during periods of coffee shortages.

Today, robusta beans are commonly used in instant coffee and canned coffee products. While the flavor profile of robusta beans is generally considered inferior to arabica beans, some blends incorporate robusta beans to add a bitter or earthy flavor note. Despite its lesser reputation, the robusta bean has undoubtedly played a significant role in the coffee industry throughout history.

Medicinal Purposes

Robusta beans have served various purposes throughout history, including medicinal uses. In traditional medicine, Robusta beans were used for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and pain-relieving properties. The caffeine and other active compounds found in the beans make them effective in treating conditions such as headaches, migraines, and asthma. Robusta beans were also used to stimulate the nervous system and increase mental alertness.

The high caffeine content in the beans was believed to improve focus and productivity, making them popular among individuals who engaged in occupations that require long hours of mental exertion. Additionally, Robusta beans were used to suppress appetite and aid in weight loss. The natural compounds found in the beans help to reduce cravings and boost metabolism, making them valuable in weight management.

In traditional African medicine, Robusta beans were used to treat symptoms of malaria, a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted through mosquito bites. The high levels of polyphenols and other antioxidants found in the beans make them effective in reducing the severity of malaria symptoms and preventing the progression of the disease. Overall, the historical medicinal uses of Robusta beans highlight their versatility and effectiveness in traditional medicine.

Culinary Uses

Robusta beans have been utilized in various culinary purposes throughout history. In addition to coffee production, the robusta bean’s unique characteristics have made it a favorite ingredient in many dishes around the world. One of the most popular culinary uses of robusta beans is in the production of chocolate. Robusta beans’ rich, nutty flavor has been mixed with cocoa beans to produce a bitter chocolate flavor popular in West Africa.

In addition, due to its high caffeine content, robusta beans have been utilized to produce a powerful and stimulating tea in East Asia. In India, robusta beans have been utilized to produce a type of lentil soup known as sambar, which is a staple food in many parts of the country. Robusta beans have also been utilized in the production of energy drinks. The robusta’s strong taste and caffeine content make it a popular ingredient to enhance the beverage’s flavor profile.

Impact on Society

Economic Impact

The historical use of Robusta beans has had a significant economic impact on the countries where they are grown and exported. Robusta beans are an essential source of income for many communities in countries such as Vietnam, Uganda, Indonesia, and Brazil. The beans are relatively easier and cheaper to grow than Arabica beans, making them more accessible to small-scale farmers who cannot afford expensive farming practices.

The high demand for Robusta beans in the global market has resulted in a substantial increase in their prices, making them an attractive cash crop for many farmers. Additionally, the introduction of Robusta beans in different parts of the world has helped boost local economies, as countries that were previously not coffee producers can now export Robusta beans to the global market. For example, in Africa, the introduction of Robusta beans as a commercial crop has contributed to the development of a coffee industry that supports millions of farmers, traders, and exporters.

Robustas beans have also helped create job opportunities, particularly in rural areas, where most coffee farms are located. Smallholder farmers who grow the beans can hire local laborers to work on their farms during the harvest season, thus providing employment to many families. The beans’ economic impact extends beyond the coffee farms, as many countries have developed a robust coffee processing industry that creates jobs for thousands of people, from roasters to baristas.

The popularity of Robusta beans has also led to an increase in coffee shops worldwide, which has created numerous job opportunities in the hospitality industry. The economies of countries that depend on Robusta beans are vulnerable to the fluctuation of coffee prices in the global market. The demand for Robusta beans tends to be lower than that of Arabica beans, resulting in lower prices for Robusta.

This volatility in coffee prices can have dire economic consequences for countries that depend on coffee exports. Additionally, the current COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the global coffee chain supply, resulting in lower demand and lower prices for coffee beans. This has had a severe economic impact on the countries that depend on coffee exports, causing widespread unemployment and poverty.

The historical use of Robusta beans has had a significant economic impact on the countries where they are grown and exported. By providing a source of income to farmers and creating job opportunities, Robusta beans have contributed to the development of many local economies. However, the fluctuation of coffee prices and the current COVID-19 pandemic has made the coffee industry vulnerable to economic shocks, resulting in the loss of livelihoods for millions of people worldwide.

Social Impact

Robusta beans, with their high caffeine content, have played a significant role in society throughout history. The use of Robusta beans in coffee production has provided economic benefits for many communities, as it is a less expensive crop to grow and further processes. Not only that, but the use of caffeinated drinks made with Robusta beans can also help to improve the productivity and focus of workers, leading to enhanced economic returns on investment.

The social impact of Robusta beans has also been notable, particularly with regard to the culture and customs of coffee drinkers worldwide. In many countries where coffee is a staple beverage, Robusta beans are used interchangeably with Arabica beans. Moreover, in many traditional social circles, the serving of coffee made from Robusta beans is often a sign of hospitality and generosity.

Cultural Impact

The cultural impact of Robusta beans has been significant in various parts of the world where coffee is consumed. In Vietnam, for example, coffee has become an integral part of its culture. The country’s coffee industry, which is heavily reliant on Robusta beans, has helped produce a unique coffee culture that is distinct from others around the world. Vietnam has developed a strong coffee culture that emphasizes the importance of socializing and sharing coffee with friends and family.

This culture has helped make coffee a popular beverage in the country and has also contributed to the growth of coffee shops and cafes. In addition, the coffee industry has played a crucial role in creating employment opportunities for millions of Vietnamese people. Robusta beans have also been an important factor in the cultural impact of coffee in other parts of the world. In Africa, Robusta beans are widely used to make traditional coffee, which is an important part of the continent’s cultural heritage.

In many African countries, coffee is not just a drink, but it also holds cultural and social significance. For instance, in Ethiopia, the birthplace of coffee, coffee ceremonies have been an important part of the country’s culture for centuries. Moreover, the cultural impact of Robusta beans has been significant in many parts of South and Central America. In Brazil, coffee is an essential part of everyday life and is served in various forms, including as an espresso shot or in small cups.

Brazilian coffee culture also emphasizes the importance of socializing and spending time with family and friends over a cup of coffee. Similarly, in Colombia, coffee has played an essential role in the country’s cultural heritage, and the coffee industry has been a significant contributor to the country’s economy. Overall, the use of Robusta beans has had a profound impact on the cultural heritage of various countries where coffee is consumed.

The cultural significance of coffee has helped create unique coffee cultures around the world and has contributed to the growth of coffee shops, cafes, and the coffee industry as a whole. As a result, Robusta beans have played an important role in shaping the cultural identity of many countries, and the cultural impact of coffee is likely to remain significant in the future.

Modern Uses Of Robusta Cultivation

Medicinal Purposes

The use of Robusta beans in various medicinal remedies dates back to ancient times. In traditional medicine practices, Robusta beans have been utilized to treat ailments such as asthma, diarrhea, fever, and migraines. The high caffeine content in Robusta beans has been used to stimulate the central nervous system, improving alertness and reducing fatigue.

Furthermore, Robusta beans contain chlorogenic acid, which has been found to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Robusta bean extracts have been used to treat skin diseases like burns, cuts, and eczema. Additionally, these extracts have been utilized in different cosmetic and personal care products, including shampoos, soaps, and scrubs.

A study conducted in the 1970s showed that Robusta bean extracts have a high concentration of tannins, which have astringent properties and are beneficial in the treatment of sore throats, mouth ulcers, and infections. In recent times, research has been conducted into the potential of Robusta beans in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Culinary Uses

Rubusta coffee beans are commonly used for their strength and distinct taste in coffee production, but they also have a range of culinary uses. These beans are known for being particularly versatile, making them a favorite for many chefs. One of the most popular culinary uses of Rubusta coffee beans is as a flavor enhancer in savory dishes. The flavor profile of these beans typically includes earthy notes, with hints of chocolate and even spices, which can be used to add depth to meat dishes, soups, and stews.

Additionally, Rubusta coffee beans can be ground up and used as a seasoning, giving dishes a unique flavor that is unlike any other. Rubusta coffee beans are also often used to infuse flavor into desserts, such as ice cream, chocolate, and cakes, providing a slight bitterness that balances out the sweetness and creates a complex flavor profile.

Furthermore, Rubusta coffee beans are an excellent ingredient for creating rubs and marinades for meat dishes. The rich flavor of the beans pairs well with the smoky flavors of roasted meats, creating a delicious and savory dish. Additionally, Rubusta coffee beans can be used to create sauces and gravies, providing a unique depth of flavor that is perfect for enhancing a variety of dishes.

Overall, Rubusta coffee beans have a variety of culinary uses that make them a versatile and exciting ingredient for chefs to work with. Whether used in savory dishes, desserts, or as a seasoning, these beans add a unique and bold flavor that is sure to impress any culinary enthusiast.

Historical uses of Robusta Beans – FAQs

1. What are Robusta beans?

Robusta beans are a type of coffee beans which belong to the Coffea canephora species, a plant that is mainly grown in the lower altitudes of Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. These beans have high caffeine content and are known for their strong, bitter taste.

2. What is the history behind the use of Robusta beans?

Historically, Robusta beans have been used as a cheaper alternative to Arabica beans as they are easier to cultivate and have a higher yield. The cultivation of Robusta beans dates back to the early 20th century, and they were primarily used in the production of instant coffee.

3. How were Robusta beans traditionally used?

Robusta beans were traditionally used in the production of espresso blends due to their high caffeine content and ability to produce a distinct crema. They were also used in the production of blends that required a strong, bitter taste.

4. What are some examples of historical Robusta bean blends?

Historical blends that used Robusta beans include the Italian espresso blend and the French roast. These blends are known for their strong taste and are still popularly consumed today.

5. How has the use of Robusta beans evolved over time?

Over time, the use of Robusta beans has evolved from being a cheaper alternative to Arabica beans to being used in combination with Arabica beans to create unique blends. Additionally, Robusta beans are now being used in the production of specialty coffee, where their unique taste and high caffeine content can be appreciated by coffee connoisseurs.

6. Are Robusta beans still used today?

Yes, Robusta beans are still widely used today in the production of coffee blends. They are commonly used in espresso blends and can be found in various coffee products such as instant coffee and single-origin coffee blends.

Hanson Cheng

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