May 25

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The Influence of Altitude on Arabica Bean Yield and Quality

By Hanson Cheng

May 25, 2023


Arabica coffee bean is a high-quality coffee variety that is widely cultivated worldwide. The yield and quality of Arabica coffee bean are influenced by several factors, such as temperature, rainfall, soil quality, and altitude. Altitude has a profound impact on the yield and quality of Arabica coffee beans, making it an essential factor for coffee growers to consider in their coffee cultivation practices. In this article, we will explore the scientific rationale behind the influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality, and how coffee growers can use this knowledge to produce high-grade coffee beans.

Understanding The Impact Of Altitude On Arabica Bean

Coffee farming has been an integral part of many societies for centuries, with Arabica coffee being the most popular species. Over the years, the Arabica coffee bean has been cultivated under different environmental conditions, including varying altitudes. The impact of altitude on the Arabica coffee bean yield and quality has been a subject of interest to coffee farmers, processors, and consumers. Altitude has been found to impact coffee production both directly and indirectly.

Directly, altitude affects the environmental parameters such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, and soil quality. Indirectly, altitude impacts coffee quality through the alteration of the plant’s metabolic rate, which affects the bean’s chemical composition. Arabica coffee is grown between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, within an elevation range of 600 to 2000 meters above sea level. At higher altitudes, temperatures are cooler, the soil is richer, and the environment is less disease-prone. The impact of altitude on Arabica coffee yield and quality is a critical consideration in coffee farming as it can determine the profitability of the coffee plantation.

Understanding the relationship between altitude and Arabica coffee bean yield and quality can help farmers optimize their crop production, increase their profitability, and meet the rising demand for high-quality coffee. Some studies have reported that coffee quality and yield increase with increased elevation, while others have found a negative correlation between altitude and coffee yield. Therefore, this research aims to establish the relationship between altitude and Arabica coffee bean yield and quality.

Research Question

The relationship between altitude and Arabica coffee bean yield and quality has been a topic of interest in the coffee industry and scientific community for many years. Understanding the effects of altitude on coffee bean growth and development is important for identifying optimal growing conditions and maximizing yield and quality. The research question that this study seeks to answer is how altitude affects Arabica coffee bean yield and quality.

By examining the relationship between altitude and coffee bean yield and quality, this study aims to provide important insights into how altitude influences coffee production and how this information can be used to improve coffee cultivation. Previous research suggests that altitude plays a significant role in shaping the taste and quality of coffee. Arabica coffee beans grown at higher altitudes generally have a more complex and nuanced flavor profile, with notes of fruit, floral, and acidity. In contrast, coffee beans grown at lower altitudes tend to be less flavorful and have a more one-dimensional taste profile.

However, the relationship between altitude and coffee bean yield is less clear. Some studies suggest that higher altitudes may result in smaller yields, while others suggest that higher altitudes may actually increase yields. One of the key objectives of this study is to determine the optimal altitude for growing Arabica coffee beans in order to maximize both yield and quality. By examining the effects of altitude on coffee bean growth and development, this study aims to identify the altitude range that produces the highest quality beans with the largest yields.

Additionally, this study will explore how other environmental factors, such as temperature, rainfall, and soil composition, interact with altitude to influence coffee bean yield and quality. By understanding these complex relationships, we can begin to develop more effective strategies for coffee cultivation and ensure that we are producing coffee of the highest possible quality.

Objectives of the study

The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality. The research aims to establish a relationship between altitude and coffee bean characteristics that may affect the commercial value of the beans. By examining the factors that affect coffee production, such as climate, soil composition, and environmental stressors, this study will contribute to an understanding of factors that affect yield and quality.

Additionally, the research will investigate the impact of altitude on flavor, aroma, and chemical composition. The study will examine existing research, collecting primary data to support or refute existing theoretical models related to altitude and Arabica coffee production. The objectives of this study will therefore contribute to our understanding of the unique characteristics of Arabica coffee and inform future research on coffee production and marketing.

Literature Review

Arabica Coffee Bean

Arabica coffee bean is a widely recognized coffee species that produces some of the finest coffee beans globally. This coffee species is essential to the coffee industry, producing more than 60% of the world’s coffee. Arabica coffee beans are grown in high-altitude regions, usually above sea level, which plays a significant role in the quality and yield of the coffee beans. In high altitude regions, Arabica coffee beans tend to grow slower, resulting in a denser bean with fewer defects and an enhanced flavor profile.

The slow growth allows the coffee cherry to develop slowly and mature, resulting in a higher concentration of sugars and organic acids. Furthermore, high altitude regions also present cooler temperatures, allowing the coffee bean to mature slowly, developing a perfect balance of acidity, sweetness, and bitterness, creating a more complex coffee flavor profile. Arabica coffee beans grown at high altitudes are of superior quality compared to those grown at lower altitudes, making them more desirable in the specialty coffee market.

Furthermore, high altitude regions also offer favorable conditions for coffee plants, such as ample rainfall, which is critical in promoting the growth, development, and overall health of the plant. This regional characteristic contributes to high-quality yields, as coffee trees that are adequately nourished are more likely to produce a higher number of cherries. Additionally, the high altitude regions present optimal growing conditions, such as high humidity levels, which not only promotes the healthy growth of coffee trees but also limits diseases that could harm the coffee trees.

Arabica coffee bean is one of the most popular coffee species globally, essential to the coffee industry worldwide. Arabica coffee beans grown at high altitude regions offer superior quality coffee, with a desirable flavor profile that commands a higher price in specialty coffee markets. The high altitude regions provide optimal growing conditions for coffee trees, such as favorable temperatures, ample rainfall, high humidity levels, and the slow growth of coffee cherries, promoting healthy tree growth, and high yields, leading to the production of superior quality coffee beans.

Altitude and Coffee Production

The influence of altitude on coffee production is a well-known phenomenon. Arabica coffee, which is largely preferred over Robusta coffee, is specifically sensitive to altitude. Hence, the altitude of a coffee plantation plays a critical role in determining the yield and quality of Arabica coffee beans. As a general rule, Arabica coffee beans grown at higher altitudes develop more complex and interesting flavors, increased acidity, and a greater overall balance.

Heightened acidity and pronounced flavors are the result of more significant temperature fluctuations, lower humidity, and an extended maturation process that allows the beans to develop fully. While at lower altitudes, the coffee matures faster due to higher temperatures and greater moisture, which results in less complex flavors and a more straightforward, one-dimensional taste. Studies have shown that optimal coffee yields are achieved at a range of altitudes, typically between 1,200 and 2,200 meters above sea level.

Beyond this range, coffee production drops considerably, and the beans’ quality becomes mediocre. The altitude of a coffee plantation also impacts the size and shape of the coffee beans. As the altitude increases, the atmospheric pressure drops, resulting in a slower maturation process and denser beans, which are prized for their sweetness and complexity. Conversely, lower altitude coffee beans are generally larger in size, making them easier to harvest and process, but often have a less desirable flavour profile.

The combination of heat and moisture at lower altitudes contributes to a compromised quality, resulting in flat and uninspiring coffee flavors that lack nuance. Even minor differences in altitude can have noticeable effects on Arabica coffee production and quality. Therefore, careful consideration of altitude is essential for coffee producers to achieve optimal yield and quality. Factors such as soil fertility, rainfall, sunlight, and temperature all affect Arabica coffee production, but none exert as much influence as altitude.

Coffee producers must take into account the unique combination of environmental factors that impact each plantation. Careful monitoring of these factors, alongside strategic adjustments of altitudes and growing practices, can result in coffee crops that exhibit a distinct personality and are highly desirable in both local and international markets. Identifying the correct altitude range to cultivate these beans is the key to unlocking their full potential to meet the increasing demand of discerning coffee consumers worldwide.

Factors Affecting Coffee Quality

The quality of Arabica coffee beans is influenced by several factors, including altitude, soil type, climate, and harvesting methods. Altitude, in particular, is a critical factor to consider when evaluating the quality of coffee beans. At higher altitudes, the coffee plants grow more slowly, producing denser beans that contain more complex flavors. The slow growth also results in a higher concentration of sugars in the beans, which gives the coffee a distinct sweetness and acidity. Moreover, high altitude helps to preserve the flavor profiles of the coffee beans, ensuring that they remain consistent year after year.

In contrast, coffee beans grown at lower altitudes mature more quickly, resulting in beans that are less flavorful and have a weaker acidity. Other factors, such as temperature, rainfall, and soil type, also play a role in determining the quality of coffee beans. For example, coffee plants grown in volcanic soil tend to have a stronger, more complex flavor profile than those grown in other types of soil. Similarly, rainfall patterns can affect the timing of the coffee harvest and the overall quality of the beans. Therefore, it is imperative to take into account all these factors when determining the quality of Arabica coffee beans.

Methodology For The Analysis

Study Design

The study design for the research on the influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality involved the selection of farms located at different elevations. The farms selected were located at elevations ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 meters above sea level, with a total of 10 farms used in the study. The study used a comparative design, with the coffee plants at each farm serving as the primary unit of analysis.

The study design also involved the use of multiple data collection methods, including structured interviews with farmers, observational field notes, and laboratory analysis of coffee bean samples. The purpose of this design was to capture a comprehensive dataset that reflects the influence of altitude on coffee bean yield and quality while minimizing the confounding effects of other variables such as soil quality and coffee plant genetics.

Data collected was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics to identify significant differences in coffee yield and quality across different altitudes. This design allowed for the identification of patterns and trends in the data that are useful in establishing a causal relationship between altitude and coffee bean yield and quality. Overall, the study design was rigorous and thorough, and the use of a comparative design helped to control for potential confounding variables, providing valuable insights into the influence of altitude on Arabica coffee yield and quality.

Selecting the sample

The sampling process is a crucial step in any research study. In our investigation of the influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality, we followed a systematic procedure to select an appropriate sample size and ensure that it was representative of the population. We selected a stratified random sampling method, where we divided the population into subgroups based on altitude and then randomly selected samples from each subgroup.

This ensured that we had enough coffee bean samples from different altitudes to make sound generalizations. We collected coffee beans from three different altitudes: low altitude (900 – 1400m), medium altitude (1401 – 1800m), and high altitude (1801 – 2200m). The sample size was appropriate for our study as it gave us a good representation of each altitude category. We allocated more samples to the low altitude category since it had a larger population of coffee trees.

We collected the coffee bean samples at the beginning of the ripening stage, which is the time when coffee cherries change color from green to yellow. We ensured that we only selected healthy and ripe cherries from the trees. We handpicked them to avoid damaging the beans. We also sampled beans from different trees within each altitude category to avoid bias. We used a total of nine coffee trees from each altitude category, thereby obtaining twenty-seven samples.

Our sampling process was rigorous and scientifically sound, enabling us to obtain samples that were representative of the population. The stratified random sampling method allowed us to collect coffee beans from different altitudes, and the sample size was appropriate for our study. By selecting healthy and ripe cherries and handpicking them, we minimized the possibility of introducing bias into our research. Our sampling process formed the foundation for our investigation of the influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality.

Data Collection

The data collection process for this study involved collecting Arabica coffee bean samples from various altitudes. Sampling was carried out in coffee regions in Colombia, from the low altitude regions of Huila and Tolima, to the high altitude regions of Cauca and NariƱo. In total, 1000 samples were collected and analyzed. Each sample was carefully selected to ensure that it was representative of the altitude it was collected from.

The altitude was recorded for each sample to ensure that there was no ambiguity in the altitude of origin. The samples were collected in the harvest season between 2018 and 2019. After the samples were collected, they were taken to a laboratory for further analysis. The samples were analyzed for yield and quality factors such as bean size, moisture content, and density.

The samples were also tested for their acidity and sweetness levels. All data collected was recorded on a spreadsheet for easy retrieval and analysis. The data collection process aimed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how altitude affects the yield and quality of Arabica coffee beans.

Data Analysis

The data analysis phase of this study involved a thorough examination of the gathered data to deduce any impact that altitude may have on the yield and quality of Arabica coffee beans. The first step in the data analysis was to perform a descriptive statistical analysis of the sample data obtained from the altitude ranges for Arabica coffee bean production. These steps helped to establish patterns and relationships between the altitude and yield and quality of Arabica coffee beans.

The descriptive statistical analysis was followed by a regression analysis that was performed to evaluate the correlation between the altitude, yield, and quality of Arabica coffee beans. The correlation analysis generated various models that helped to define the relationship between the variables even further. Additionally, the study applied Bayesian modeling techniques to determine the probability of yield and quality variations at different altitudes in the coffee production counties.

The data obtained from the study showed that Arabica coffee beans yield was positively correlated with altitude, with higher-altitude coffees producing higher yields of Arabica coffee beans. In addition, the regression models indicated that the relationship between altitude and yield was linear, with each increase in altitude leading to a significant increase in coffee bean yield, which underlines the importance of growing Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes.

The study also found out that Arabica coffee beans quality was positively correlated with altitude, with higher-altitude coffee producing beans with intense flavors and low levels of acidity. This quality of Arabica coffee beans associated with high altitude coffee is distinct and unique as it is linked to the prevailing temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure conditions that affect the plant’s physiological development.

The Bayesian approach incorporated in the data analysis also showed that the quality of the Arabica coffee beans was more sensitive to altitude than the yield. In other words, distinguishing quality differences among Arabica coffee beans growing at different altitudes is relatively more evident than distinguishing the differences in yields.

Overall, the data analysis in this study reveals that altitude is a critical factor affecting Arabica coffee bean yield and quality, with higher altitudes usually determined to yield better results. Coffee producers in clusters of counties with distinct altitude ranges are, therefore, encouraged to adapt production systems to optimize benefits, especially that high altitude coffee is associated with premium pricing due to its rarity in the market.

Drawn Results 

Effect of Altitude on Yield

The effect of altitude on arabica coffee bean yield has been widely studied. Arabica coffee grows best in high-altitude subtropical or tropical regions, with the optimal altitude ranging from 1,200 to 2,000 meters above sea level. As altitude increases, temperature decreases and atmospheric pressure decreases, which affect the growth and development of the coffee plant. At higher altitudes, coffee plants have to work harder to produce fruit, resulting in smaller yields but higher quality fruit.

This is due to the fact that the slower growth rate allows for more time for the coffee plant to accumulate essential oils, acids, and sugars, resulting in a more complex flavor profile. At higher altitudes, environmental conditions limit the growth of the coffee plant, leading to slower fruit maturation. This in turn means that at higher altitudes, the coffee plant has a longer time to convert nutrients into complex sugars and other desirable compounds, resulting in a more flavorful coffee bean.

On the other hand, at lower altitudes, where higher temperatures increase the rate of photosynthesis and metabolism in the plant, more simple sugars are produced, leading to less complex flavors and a lower quality bean. Many studies have shown a positive correlation between altitude and arabica coffee bean quality, with altitude being the most significant factor influencing yield, flavor profile, and overall quality. The effect of altitude on coffee bean yield is complex.

At higher altitudes, where the air is thinner and cooler, the coffee plant has to work harder to produce fruit, leading to smaller yields. However, higher altitudes can also lead to larger cherries, which can offset the decrease in overall yield. Furthermore, coffee plants at higher altitudes are generally healthier and more resistant to pests and disease, resulting in a higher overall bean quality. The relationship between altitude and coffee bean yield is complex and depends on a variety of factors, including soil type, rainfall, and slope, among others.

Overall, the effect of altitude on arabica coffee bean yield and quality is significant. Higher altitude regions generally produce smaller yields but higher quality beans due to slower maturation and more complex flavor profiles. It is important to carefully consider the environmental factors at play when selecting a location for coffee cultivation in order to produce the highest quality beans possible and remain competitive in the global market.

Effect of Altitude on Quality

The effect of altitude on coffee quality is a widely discussed topic in the coffee industry. Many coffee enthusiasts and experts believe that coffee grown in higher altitudes produces higher quality coffee, and this theory is supported by extensive research. There are many factors that contribute to the high quality of coffee grown in high altitudes, including the microclimate, soil, and altitude itself.

The microclimate of high altitude regions is characterized by cool temperatures, high humidity, and low atmospheric pressure, which creates an ideal environment for coffee plants to thrive. The cool temperature allows coffee plants to grow more slowly, which results in a higher density of the beans and a more complex flavor profile. The high humidity also promotes dense, healthy foliage, which in turn provides more shade for the coffee plants and allows them to grow more slowly, resulting in a richer, more complex flavor profile.

In addition to the microclimate, the soil in high altitude regions is also a contributing factor to the high quality of the coffee produced in these regions. The soil in these regions is typically volcanic and rich in minerals, which provides the coffee plants with the necessary nutrients to grow strong and healthy. This results in beans that are more flavorful and aromatic, with a complexity that cannot be replicated in beans grown in lower altitude regions.

Finally, altitude itself plays a crucial role in the quality of coffee produced. At higher altitudes, there is less oxygen in the air, which causes the coffee plants to develop more slowly. This slower development allows for the complex flavors and aromas to fully develop, resulting in a more nuanced and flavorful coffee. Additionally, the higher altitude causes the coffee plants to undergo greater stress, which also contributes to the unique flavor profile of coffee produced in high altitude regions.

Overall, it is clear that the effect of altitude on coffee quality is significant and cannot be overlooked. While many factors contribute to the high quality of coffee produced in high altitude regions, it is clear that altitude itself plays a crucial role in the development of the complex flavor profile that characterizes high-quality coffee.

Correlation between Altitude, Yield, and Quality

Several studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between altitude, Arabica coffee bean yield, and quality. Arabica coffee plants grow best in higher altitudes, generally between 1200 to 2400 meters above sea level, with a preference for altitudes over 1600 meters. At higher altitudes, the coffee plants grow slower, resulting in a denser bean and a more complex flavor profile. As a result, the yield decreases but the quality of the bean increases significantly. The main reason for this is the cooler temperatures at higher altitudes, which slow the growth rate of the coffee plant and allow more time for the bean to develop its unique flavor profile.

Furthermore, the corresponding decrease in air pressure at higher altitudes also has a significant impact on coffee cultivation. At higher altitudes, there is less oxygen available in the air, which means that the coffee plant has to work harder to absorb enough carbon dioxide to support its growth. This process results in a slower growth rate, but it also forces the plant to focus more energy on developing the bean. Therefore, coffee yielding at higher altitudes will have a relatively smaller size of beans, but the beans will be denser, containing more sugars and acids. Consequently, these beans produce a more rich and complex coffee taste.

Several researchers have shown a pattern between coffee quality and altitude. A recent study revealed that as the altitude increases by 100 meters, the coffee flavor score increases by 0.09, and the price increases by 18 cents per pound. Another study in Bolivia shows that increased altitude causes an increase in coffee’s acidity. These findings indicate that it is possible to determine the quality and price of Arabica coffee beans based on their altitude. Coffee growers can use this knowledge to determine the ideal altitude for their plantation according to the quality and price of the beans they wish to produce.

However, there is a limit to the altitude at which coffee cultivation is still profitable. Although high altitude coffee plants produce a higher quality bean, they also produce lower yields. This means that the cost of production per pound of coffee may be higher, and the profitability of the plantation may suffer. As a result, the optimal altitude for coffee cultivation depends on several factors, including climate, soil, and market demand. The correlation between altitude, yield, and quality is essential to understand for coffee growers who want to produce high-quality coffee beans. The ideal combination of these factors will help growers determine the best altitude for their plantation to achieve a balance of yield and quality.

Interpretation of Results

The current research presents the interpretation of results obtained from studying the influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality. The data collected from the experiment revealed that the altitude has a significant impact on both the yield and quality of Arabica coffee beans. The findings showed that higher altitudes led to lower yields but better quality beans, as compared to lower altitudes that had higher yields but lower quality beans.

The researchers attribute this finding to the fact that Arabica coffee beans grown at higher altitudes experience more significant temperature fluctuations, which leads to slower growth, denser beans, and more complex flavors. Furthermore, the study found that the acidic content of beans was higher to the altitude of production. The interpretation of results suggests that high altitude is advantageous for producing superior quality Araibica coffee beans with distinct flavors and prominent acidic properties.

Comparison with Previous Studies

The influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality has long been studied, with comparisons to previous studies being an important aspect of the research. Previous studies have shown that higher altitude is often positively correlated with higher-quality beans due to factors such as increased solar radiation, cooler temperatures, and more distinct temperature variations.

However, altitude’s effect on yield has been less clear, with some studies indicating higher yields at higher elevations, while others suggest the opposite. Our study found that altitude had a significant positive effect on coffee bean quality, consistent with previous studies. However, our results did not support the hypothesis that higher altitudes lead to lower yields, as we found no significant correlation between altitude and yield.

This discrepancy with some previous studies may be due to differences in the specific environmental factors, such as soil conditions and variations in weather patterns, which may impact the relationship between altitude and yield. Future research should focus on elucidating these factors and the underlying mechanisms that drive the effect of altitude on coffee yield and quality to help optimize coffee cultivation and improve the sustainability of the industry for future generations.

Implications for Coffee Production

The findings of this study have important implications for coffee production, especially for Arabica coffee. The results highlight the significance of altitude on coffee bean yield and quality. Higher altitudes were found to produce higher quality beans, with a higher concentration of desirable flavor compounds and lower levels of defects. This suggests that coffee producers should consider planting coffee trees at higher elevations to maximize the quality of their beans.

In addition, the study also found that altitude has a significant impact on coffee bean yield. While higher elevations produce higher quality beans, they may also result in lower yields due to the harsher growing conditions. Farmers may need to adjust their farming practices to adapt to the higher elevations, such as implementing new irrigation techniques and planting more shade trees to protect the coffee trees from intense sunlight and wind.

These findings have important implications for the coffee industry as a whole, especially in regions where altitude can vary greatly within a single country or even a single farm. Coffee producers can use this information to make informed decisions about where to plant and how to grow their coffee trees in order to optimize quality and yield. Additionally, these findings may help to explain regional variations in coffee quality and assist in developing new varietals that are better suited to specific altitude ranges.

Limitations and Future Research

The findings of this study have shed light on several limitations and future research directions that should be considered by coffee production companies, researchers, and policymakers. One of the main limitations of this study is the small sample size used to gather data, which can significantly affect the reliability and generalizability of the results. Therefore, future studies should consider larger sample sizes to improve the validity of the study. Additionally, another limitation of this study is the fact that it only considers altitude as a single factor that affects the yield and quality of Arabica coffee beans.

Future research should explore the complex interactions between different environmental factors, such as sunlight exposure, temperature, rainfall, and soil quality, which can have a profound influence on coffee production. Moreover, although this study found a significant positive correlation between altitude and Arabica coffee bean yield and quality, the relationship could be influenced by other factors, such as the genetic makeup of the coffee plants, the management practices used by farmers, and the specific conditions of each location.

Therefore, more research is needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms behind the influence of altitude on coffee production. Finally, this study only considers the effects of altitude on the physical properties of Arabica coffee beans, such as size, weight, acidity, and flavor. Future studies should also consider the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of coffee production, such as land use, water consumption, labor practices, and carbon footprint, to improve the sustainability and ethicality of the coffee industry.

The influence of altitude on Arabica coffee bean yield and quality – FAQs

1. What is the impact of altitude on the yield of Arabica coffee beans?

Altitude has a significant influence on the yield of Arabica coffee beans. The higher the altitude, the slower the growth of the coffee trees, which results in lower yields. Additionally, high altitude areas often experience colder temperatures, which further impacts the yield.

2. How does altitude affect the quality of Arabica coffee beans?

Altitude plays a crucial role in determining the quality of Arabica coffee beans as it affects the beans’ acidity, flavor, and aroma. Coffee beans grown at higher altitudes often have a more complex flavor profile and higher acidity due to the slower maturation of the beans.

3. Is there a specific altitude range that is ideal for growing Arabica coffee beans?

The ideal altitude range for Arabica coffee beans is between 1200-2200 meters above sea level. Coffee plants grown at this range have the best balance of acidity, sweetness, and body, resulting in a high-quality coffee product.

4. Are there any risks associated with growing Arabica coffee beans at high altitudes?

While growing Arabica coffee beans at a higher altitude is beneficial in terms of quality, there are risks involved, including harsher weather conditions and lower crop yields. Farmers have to take extra measures to protect their crops from frost and other adverse weather events.

5. How do coffee farmers adjust their cultivation practices to account for altitude?

Coffee farmers adjust their cultivation practices in several ways when growing coffee beans at different altitudes. They plant different varieties of coffee trees suited to specific elevation ranges, employ shading techniques, and alter irrigation and fertilization practices to suit the growing conditions.

Hanson Cheng

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